Supply appropriate conjunctions of cause, contrast, concession, and result, and other things as required. Then reformulate the sentences as equivalent conditionals, if possible. (These sentences don't necessarily have much to do with each other, contextually.)

 

1. She called me at work. I have told her ten times not to do that.

2. I hesitated to call her at the hospital. I had no choice.

3. It was an emergency. I called her.

4. Of course I called her -it was an emergency.

5. I would normally just call her secretary. This was an emergency. I dialed her secret direct number.

è however - so

è but - so

è but - since

6. I suppose that she is a good surgeon. I have never been her patient myself.

7. He spent the night at his friend's place _____________ he had had too much carrot juice.

8. He had had too much carrot juice, _____________ he stayed at his friend's place.

9. _____________ she couldn't stand the sight of tofu, she didn't want to offend her friends.

10. She couldn't stand the sight of tofu, _____________ she didn't want to offend her friends.

11. She was especially loth to offend their elders, _____________ they had fed and protected her.

12. Their elders had fed and protected her, _______________ she was especially loth to offend them.

13. She was having second thoughts about putting the horrible, wriggly creature in her mouth, _____________ it was too late, _____________ the people were watching in eager anticipation.

14. She was having second thoughts about eating it. _____________, it was too late to change her mind, _____________ she realized when she saw the people's eager faces.

15. _____________ she had warned them all about her violent allergy to carob, they insisted that she come and partake _____________.

 

Write equivalent sentences, using the suggested terms.

1. I can't read Braille, and you can't either.

è neither

è nor

è neither - nor

2. It was incredible enough that the chief should come to the ceremony, and even more so that his crazy sister should come!

è not only - but (too/also/as well)

3. It was incredible enough that the chief should come to the ceremony, and even more so that he should attend the next morning's sacrifice!

è not only - but (too/also/as well)

4. I could move to Baffin, or I could go to Hull. It would be the same.

è either

è whether

5. If you wish to leave, you may go now.

è anyone

è whoever

6. You can send the document any way you like. It comes out the same.

è how

è however

7. It doesn't matter who you send. The secretary will give him the key.

è anyone

è whoever

8. It doesn't matter at all, not one bit.

è any - whatsoever

è no - whatsoever

9. You can do anything with this gizmo!

è what

è whatever

10. I don't know whether you said anything to her, but she is ticked off!

è what

è whatever

11. You can go anywhere you like, and I promise I'll be right behind you.

è where

è wherever

12. His buddy told him the bad news during the coffee break, and later, the boss announced it officially. He wasn't surprised when he heard the boss' announcement,

è because…

è since…

13. I have used this Braille slate since…

14. I have been using this Braille slate ever since…

  1. I have to use this Braille slate, since…
  2. Once she put a piece of deep-fried tofu in her mouth…
  3. Once she had put a piece of deep-fried tofu in her mouth…
  4. Since you use this software every day, …
  5. Since you have been using this software every day, …
  6. Since you have been here, …
  7. Since you have been here before, …

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

1. She called me at work EVEN THOUGH I have told her ten times not to do that; ALTHOUGH/THOUGH I have told her ten times not to do that, she called me at work (ANYWAY); I have told her ten times not to (do that), BUT she called me at work (ANYWAY).

2. I hesitated to call her at the hospital BUT I had no choice. IF I HAD HAD ANY CHOICE IN THE MATTER, I WOULDN'T HAVE CALLED HER AT THE HOSPITAL.

3. It was an emergency, SO I called her. IT WAS AN EMERGENCY! THAT'S WHY I CALLED HER. I CALLED HER, SINCE IT WAS AN EMERGENCY. I CALLED HER BECAUSE IT WAS AN EMERGENCY. I WOULDN'T HAVE CALLED HER HAD IT NOT BEEN AN EMERGENCY. HAD IT NOT BEEN AN EMERGENCY, I WOULDN'T HAVE CALLED HER! (etc.)

4. Of course I called her -it was an emergency. SINCE IT WAS AN EMERGENCY, OF COURSE I CALLED HER (etc.); IF IT HADN'T BEEN AN EMERGENCY, WELL, I MIGHT NOT HAVE CALLED HER (etc.)

5. I would normally just call her secretary. This was an emergency. I dialed her secret direct number.

NORMALLY, I WOULD HAVE CALLED HER SECRETARY, BUT (SINCE) THIS WAS AN EMERGENCY, (SO) I DIALED HER SECRET NUMBER. HAD IT NOT BEEN AN EMERGENCY, I WOULD HAVE SIMPLY CALLED HER SECRETARY, INSTEAD OF DIALING HER SECRET NUMBER. IF IT HAD NOT BEEN AN EMERGENCY, I WOULD HAVE JUST CALLED HER SECRETARY, AND I WOULDN'T HAVE DIALED HER SECRET NUMBER (etc.)

è however - so NORMALLY, I WOULD HAVE CALLED HER SECRETARY. HOWEVER, THIS WAS AN EMERGENCY, SO I DIALED…

è but - so NORMALLY, I WOULD HAVE CALLED HER SECRETARY, BUT THIS WAS AN EMERGENCY, SO I …

è but - since …BUT SINCE THIS WAS AN EMERGENCY, I…; …BUT I DIALED HER SECRET NUMBER (INSTEAD), SINCE THIS WAS…

6. I suppose that she is a good surgeon ALTHOUGH I have never been her patient myself.

IF I HAD EVER BEEN HER PATIENT MYSELF, PERHAPS I COULD SAY FOR SURE WHETHER SHE IS A GOOD SURGEON.

7. He spent the night at his friend's place BECAUSE he had had too much carrot juice.

IF HE HADN'T HAD SO MUCH CARROT JUICE, HE WOULDN'T HAVE SPENT THE NIGHT AT HIS FRIEND'S PLACE.

8. He had had too much carrot juice, SO he stayed at his friend's place. (AS ABOVE)

9. ALTHOUGH she couldn't stand the sight of tofu, she didn't want to offend her friends. (NOT THE SAME AS: SHE DIDN'T WANT TO OFFEND HER FRIENDS' BUT SHE COULDN'T STAND THE SIGHT OF TOFU!!)

10. She couldn't stand the sight of tofu, BUT she didn't want to offend her friends. (USE "HOWEVER" IF THE FIRST CLAUSE ENDS WITH A PERIOD)

11. She was especially loth to offend their elders, SINCE/AS/FOR they had fed and protected her.

SHE MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN SO AVERSE TO OFFENDING THE ELDERS IF THEY HAD NOT FED AND PROTECTED HER.

12. Their elders had fed and protected her, AND/SO she was especially loth to offend them. (USE "THUS"/"THEREFORE"/ "THAT EXPLAINS WHY" IF THE FIRST CLAUSE ENDS WITH A PERIOD) IF THE ELDERS HAD NOT FED AND PROTECTED HER, SHE MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN SO LOTH TO OFFEND THEM.

13. She was having second thoughts about putting the horrible, wriggly creature in her mouth, BUT it was too late, AS/SINCE the people were watching in eager anticipation. IF THE PEOPLE HAD NOT BEEN THERE WATCHING' SHE MIGHT HAVE GIVEN IN TO HER SECOND THOUGHTS ABOUT PUTTING THE HORRIBLE THING INTO HER MOUTH.

14. She was having second thoughts about eating it. HOWEVER, it was too late to change her mind, AS she realized when she saw the people's eager faces. (AS ABOVE)

15. ALTHOUGH/EVEN THOUGH she had warned them all about her violent allergy to carob, they insisted that she come and partake ANYWAY.

Write equivalent sentences, using the suggested terms.

1. I can't read Braille, and you can't either.

è neither NEITHER OF US CAN READ BRAILLE.

è nor I CAN'T READ BRAILLE, NOR CAN YOU (NOTE SUBJECT-AUX. INVERSION!)

è neither - nor NEITHER YOU NOR I CAN READ BRAILLE

2. It was incredible enough that the chief should come to the ceremony, and even more so that his crazy sister should come!

è not only - but (too/also/as well) NOT ONLY DID THE CHIEF COME TO THE CEREMONY; HIS SISTER ACTUALLY CAME AS WELL!

3. It was incredible enough that the chief should come to the ceremony, and even more so that he should attend the next morning's sacrifice!

è not only - but (too/also/as well) NOT ONLY DID THE CHIEF (ACTUALLY) COME TO THE CEREMONY, HE (EVEN) CAME TO THE NEXT MORNING'S SACRIFICE AS WELL! THE CHIEF NOT ONLY CAME TO THE CEREMONY, BUT (ON TOP OF THAT) (EVEN) CAME TO THE NEXT MORNING'S SACRIFICE AS WELL!!

4. I could move to Baffin, or I could go to Hull. It would be the same.

è either I COULD EITHER MOVE TO BAFFIN OR GO TO HULL…

è whether WHETHER I MOVED TO BAFFIN OR WENT TO HULL, IT WOULD BE THE SAME. (CONTRAST MEANING: MOVING TO BAFFIN OR GOING TO HULL WOULD BE THE SAME)

5. If you wish to leave, you may go now.

è anyone ANYONE WISHING TO LEAVE MAY GO NOW. IF ANYONE WISHES TO LEAVE, HE MAY GO NOW (HE= CONSERVATIVE GENERIC)

è whoever WHOEVER WISHES TO LEAVE MAY GO NOW.

6. You can send the document any way you like. It comes out the same.

è how HOW YOU SEND THE DOCUMENT DOESN'T REALLY MATTER. IT COMES OUT THE SAME. IT DOESN'T MATTER HOW YOU SEND THE DOCUMENT, IT…

è however HOWEVER YOU SEND THE DOCUMENT, IT COMES OUT THE SAME.

7. It doesn't matter who you send. The secretary will give him the key.

è anyone JUST SEND ANYONE -THE SECRETARY WILL GIVE HIM /HER / THEM THE KEY (CONTRAST MEANING: THE SECRETARY WILL GIVE THE KEY TO ANYONE YOU SEND)

è whoever THE SECRETARY WILL GIVE THE KEY TO WHOEVER YOU SEND. WHOEVER YOU SEND, THE SECRETARY WILL GIVE HIM / HER / THEM THE KEY.

8. It doesn't matter at all, not one bit.

è any - whatsoever IT DOESN'T MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE WHATSOEVER.

è no - whatsoever IT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE WHATSOEVER.

9. You can do anything with this gizmo!

è what YOU CAN DO WHAT YOU WANT WITH THIS GIZMO

è whatever YOU CAN DO WHATEVER YOU WANT WITH THIS GIZMO! WHATEVER YOU WANT TO DO WITH THIS GIZMO, YOU CAN DO IT!

10. I don't know whether you said anything to her, but she is ticked off!

è what I DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU SAID TO HER (, IF ANYTHING,) BUT…

è whatever WHATEVER YOU SAID TO HER SHE …

11. You can go anywhere you like, and I promise I'll be right behind you.

è where YOU CAN GO WHERE YOU LIKE…

è wherever YOU CAN GO WHEREVER YOU LIKE… GO WHEREVER YOU LIKE! I PROMISE…

WHEREVER YOU GO, I PROMISE…

12. His buddy told him the bad news during the coffee break, and later, the boss announced it officially. He wasn't surprised when he heard the boss' announcement,

è because… HE ALREADY KNEW

è since… HIS BUDDY HAD TOLD HIM DURING THE COFFE-BREAK

13. I have used this Braille slate since… I GRADUATED FROM THE COLLEGE FOR THE BLIND

14. I have been using this Braille slate ever since… I GRADUATED FROM THE COLLEGE FOR THE BLIND AND I WAS TOLD THAT IT WAS MY ONLY CHANCE OF EVER FITTING INTO THE WORK-PLACE

15. I have to use this Braille slate, since… MY PATIENTS ARE BOTH BLIND AND DEAF, AND I HAVE TO COMMUNICATE WITH THEM IN A PRECISE WAY

16. Once she put a piece of deep-fried tofu in her mouth… AND CHOKED WITH DISGUST IN FRONT OF ALL THE DIGNITARIES!

17. Once she had put a piece of deep-fried tofu in her mouth… SHE QUICKLY SWALLOWED IT WITH A GLASS OF BUTTER-MILK WITHOUT EVEN TASTING IT.

18. Since you use this software every day, … MAYBE YOU CAN EXPLAIN WHY IT ALWAYS ERASES AND DEFACES EVERYTHING IN MY ADDRESS-BOOK

19. Since you have been using this software every day, … (CAUSAL OR TEMPORAL!) MY COMPUTER HAS BEEN ACTING STRANGELY // YOU SHOULD BE BETTER WITH IT THAN I AM

20. Since you have been here, … I HAVEN'T GOTTEN ONE BLESSED WINK OF SLEEP!

21. Since you have been here before, … YOU MUST REALIZE THAT WE ALL LIKE TO SLEEP AT NIGHT!