The Economist, Oct.19, 2002

Infant Mortality:

Trouble With The In-Laws

The lethal implications of an interfering mother-in-law

Mothers-in-law are the butt of many jokes. There may, though, be a sinister reality behind the humour. A report in this month's Behaviour Ecology and Sociobiology, by Jan Beise of the Max Planck Institue for Demographic Research in Rostock and Eckart Voland of Giessen University, both in Germany, suggests that, in the past at least, a mother-in-law may have had a fatal effect on her daughter-in-law's children.

Dr Beise and Dr Voland drew their data from church registers in the Krummhorn region of Germany. They studied the records of more than 23,000 families who lived there between 1720, when the records became comprehensive, and 1974, when the job of keeping them was taken away from the church. They found that the chance of a child dying within a month of birth doubled if the child's paternal grandmother was alive. The effect did not depend on whether the grandmother was living in the same household as the child.

Maternal grandmothers, by contrast, made no difference in the first month, and made a significant improvement to a child's prospects later on. The odds of a child who reached the age of six months going on to celebrate a first birthday were 60% higher if the child's maternal grandmother was still alive.

This second result makes perfect evolutionary sense. The first, though, does not. After all, a paternal grandmother has as much genetic interest in the success of her son's children as a maternal one does in her daughter's. But only, of course, if they really are her son's children. The maternal grandmother is the only grandparent who can be sure she is really related to her grandchildren. The paternal grandmother shares, in an evolutionary sense, her son's risk that he might have been cuckolded. So the best explanation that the two researchers can come up with is that women are in some way harassed by their mothers-in-law to discourage adulterous matings.

Such harassment might well have an adverse effect on a woman's foetus if she happened to be pregnant, and that effect would probably show up early in a child's life. And, witness the jokes, harassment is widely perceived to take place. But there is not much evolutionary point in "guarding" a pregnant woman against such matings, since she cannot become pregnant again. So, the mother-in-law effect remains a bit of a mystery.

 

Oral exercises.

 

A. Dictation: Listen to the teacher's reading of the following list and note the position of the main accent in each word.

 

pronounce pronunciation profound profundity suicide suicidal simplify simplification sublime subliminal sublimation senile senility sacrifice sacrificial parasite parasitic final finality hostile hostility emphasise emphatic able ability volunteer voluntary voluntarily arbitrary arbitrarily necessary necessarily lucid lucidity explain explanatory admire admirable

 

B. Dictation: Listen to the teacher's reading of the following text and note the position of the accent in the words in boldface.

How to define a euphemism depends on how scientific you want the definition to be. After all, what you consider a euphemistic expression may or may not have any relation to science. Likewise, what you call humour may coincide with other people's tastes, or it may bear no similarity whatsoever. An arbitrarily rigorous statement of meaning is unnecessary when the context is sufficient, and inappropriate when the specific meaning is contextually very dependent.

 

C. Silent reading: Check the position of the accent in the following words.

similar similarly similarity coincide coincidence coincidental cataclysm cataclysmic specify specific specificity humour humouristic

 

D. Supply in writing the missing compound adjectives. Then record the sentences containing these compounds.

1. It is important to face your tests with "a level head".

It is important to be __________________________ when you are taking a test.

2. I would be nice to have a little machine that conjugates verbs!

It would be nice to have a little ________________________ machine!

3. Of course, that would not give you the kind of knowledge that lasts a long time.

It would not give you _________________________ knowledge.

4. A normal brain weighing 1,000 grams can do better than a computer with ten billion giga-bytes of memory.

A normal ______________________________ brain is better than a computer with a ______________________________ memory.

  1. The difference lies in your human ability to prepare yourself well. Computers depend wholly on programmers for that. Only you can make sure that you are ______________________________.

 

 

Suggested corrections

 

1. It is important to face your tests with "a level head".

It is important to be level-headed when you are taking a test.

2. I would be nice to have a little machine that conjugates verbs!

It would be nice to have a little verb-conjugating machine!

3. Of course, that would not give you the kind of knowledge that lasts a long time.

It would not give you long-lasting knowledge.

4. A normal brain weighing 1,000 grams can do better than a computer with ten billion giga-bytes of memory.

A normal one-thousand-gram brain is better than a computer with a ten-billion-giga-byte memory.

 

  1. The difference lies in your human ability to prepare yourself well. Computers depend wholly on programmers for that. Only you can make sure that you are well-prepared.

Second short test: /30 points = /5%

( /12 points) CONJUGATIONS: Match up each phrase in the left column with at least one in the right. (Write the letter of the matching phrase in the second column at the end of the phrase in the first.)

1) Since I moved all my books here

 

a) the landlord was doing three different repairs.

2) After I moved all my books here

b) the landlord did three different repairs.

3) When I moved all my books here

c) the landlord wouldn't do any repairs.

4) As I was moving all my books here

d) the landlord hadn't done any repairs yet.

5) Until I moved all my books here

e) the landlord will keep on doing various repairs.

6) Before I moved all of my books here

f) the landlord kept on doing various repairs.

7) As soon as I moved all my books here

g) the landlord was completing his third repair.

8) By the time I move all of my books here

h) the landlord hadn't done any repairs.

9) By the time I had moved all my books here

i) the landlord should have done three different repairs.

10) Until I move all of my books here

j) the landlord was still doing various repairs.

11) During the transfer of all my books

k) the landlord has been doing various repairs.

12) Until I had moved all my books here

l) the landlord had done three different repairs.

13) While I was moving all my books here

m) the landlord started doing various repairs.

Suggested corrections.

1) Since I moved all my books here Ô K

 

a) the landlord was doing three different repairs.

2) After I moved all my books here Ô B, C, F, I, J, M. G, H, L: POSSIBLE WITH MORE CONTEXT

b) the landlord did three different repairs.

3) When I moved all my books here Ô A, C, D, F, G, H, I, K, L, M

c) the landlord wouldn't do any repairs.

4) As I was moving all my books here Ô C, F, I (IF AS=CAUSE); J, M (IF AS=TIME)

d) the landlord hadn't done any repairs yet.

5) Until I moved all my books here Ô C, F, H

e) the landlord will keep on doing various repairs.

6) Before I moved all of my books here Ô A,B,C,H,I,J,L,M

f) the landlord kept on doing various repairs.

7) As soon as I moved all my books here Ô B,I,M

g) the landlord was completing his third repair.

8) By the time I move all of my books here Ô I

h) the landlord hadn't done any repairs.

9) By the time I had moved all my books here Ô A, C, D; I (VERY DIFFERENT MEANING FROM ABOVE!); J, L

i) the landlord should have done three different repairs.

10) Until I move all of my books here Ô E

j) the landlord was still doing various repairs.

11) During the transfer of all my books Ô A,B,C,F,I,J,M

k) the landlord has been doing various repairs.

12) Until I had moved all my books here Ô C,F,J

l) the landlord had done three different repairs.

13) While I was moving all my books here Ô A,B,C,F,G,I,J,M; L: WITH MORE CONTEXT

m) the landlord started doing various repairs.

Note the two meanings of "He should have done three repairs". Present, expected FACT = "He has probably done…" Past, expected DUTY/ACTION = "He was supposed to do (but did not do)…"

 

( /13 points) MODALS: Same instructions as above.

1) There is no doubt that Joël discussed the new well with the villagers.

 

a) Joël may have discussed the new well with the villagers.

2) There is no doubt that the discussion Joël had with the villagers was not about the new well.

b) Joël should have discussed the new well with the villagers.

3) Joël has been forbidden to discuss the new well with the villagers.

c) Joël should be discussing the new well with the villagers.

4) Joël is urgently advised not to discuss the new well with the villagers.

d) Joël may not discuss the new well with the villagers.

5) It is quite possible, in my opinion, that Joël had some discussion with the villagers about the new well.

e) Joël could have discussed the new well with the villagers.

6) It would have been good for Joël to have some discussion with the villagers about the new well.

f) Joël was able to have some discussions with the villagers about the new well.

7) It is entirely possible that Joël had some discussion with the villagers about the new well.

g) Joël doesn't have to have any discussions about the new well with the villagers.

8) Joël had the chance to discuss the new well with the villagers, but for some reason he didn't take it.

h) Joël may be having a discussion about the new well with the villagers.

9) Joël managed to discuss the new well with the villagers.

i) Joël couldn't have had any discussion about the new well with the villagers!

10) What Joël is discussing with the villagers is assuredly not the new well. He hasn't even been informed of it himself.

j) Joël must not be discussing the new well with the villagers.

11) It is obvious that Joël never had that discussion about the new well with the villagers.

k) Joël must not discuss the new well with the villagers.

12) Joël is probably starting or is about to start discussions with the villagers about the new well.

l) Joël must not have discussed the new well with the villagers.

13) A good thing for Joël to have some discussion with the villagers about would be the new well.

m) Joël should discuss the new well with the villagers.

14) Joël has no special duty to discuss the new well with the villagers.

n) Joël might have discussed the new well with the villagers.

15) It is quite possible that Joël is discussing the new well with the villagers.

o) Joël must discuss the new well with the villagers.

16) It is Joël's mission to discuss the new well with the villagers.

p) Joël may not discuss the new well with the villagers.

17) Joël has been denied permission to discuss the new well with the villagers.

q) Joël can't be discussing the new well with the villagers!

 

Suggested corrections.

1) There is no doubt that Joël discussed the new well with the villagers. Ô NOT AMONG CHOICES

 

a) Joël may have discussed the new well with the villagers.

2) There is no doubt that the discussion Joël had with the villagers was not about the new well. Ô L

b) Joël should have discussed the new well with the villagers.

3) Joël has been forbidden to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô P

c) Joël should be discussing the new well with the villagers.

4) Joël is urgently advised not to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô K

d) Joël may not discuss the new well with the villagers. NOT AMONG CHOICES

5) It is quite possible, in my opinion, that Joël had some discussion with the villagers about the new well. Ô N

e) Joël could have discussed the new well with the villagers.

6) It would have been good for Joël to have some discussion with the villagers about the new well. Ô B

f) Joël was able to have some discussions with the villagers about the new well.

7) It is entirely possible that Joël had some discussion with the villagers about the new well. Ô A

g) Joël doesn't have to have any discussions about the new well with the villagers.

8) Joël had the chance to discuss the new well with the villagers, but for some reason he didn't take it. Ô E

h) Joël may be having a discussion about the new well with the villagers.

9) Joël managed to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô F

i) Joël couldn't have had any discussion about the new well with the villagers!

10) What Joël is discussing with the villagers is assuredly not the new well. He hasn't even been informed of it himself. Ô Q

j) Joël must not be discussing the new well with the villagers.

11) It is obvious that Joël never had that discussion about the new well with the villagers. Ô I, L

k) Joël must not discuss the new well with the villagers.

12) Joël is probably starting or is about to start discussions with the villagers about the new well. Ô C

l) Joël must not have discussed the new well with the villagers.

13) A good thing for Joël to have some discussion with the villagers about would be the new well. Ô M

m) Joël should discuss the new well with the villagers.

14) Joël has no special duty to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô G

n) Joël might have discussed the new well with the villagers.

15) It is quite possible that Joël is discussing the new well with the villagers. Ô H

o) Joël must discuss the new well with the villagers.

16) It is Joël's mission to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô O

p) Joël may not discuss the new well with the villagers.

17) Joël has been denied permission to discuss the new well with the villagers. Ô P

q) Joël can't be discussing the new well with the villagers!

Note: 1) There is no doubt that Joël discussed the new well with the villagers = He must not have discussed…

d) Joël may not discuss the new well with the villagers = It is quite possible that he will not…

( /5 points) CONDITIONALS: Match up the parts of the following conditionals. The resulting conditional must mean the same thing as the proposed sentence.

Geronimo's German Shepherd has a SLOW allergy to Tofu, so he will probably be sick tomorrow.

Match ONE from this column…

…with ONE from this one!

If that German Shepherd has an ordinary rapid-reaction allergy,

he wouldn't get sick the next day.

If that German Shepherd had an ordinary rapid-reaction allergy,

ó

he will probably be sick tomorrow.

When that German Shepherd has an ordinary rapid allergic reaction,

he probably won't get sick

If that German Shepherd had had an ordinary rapid-reaction allergy,

he would probably get sick right away .

 

Geronimo's German Shepherd ate Aunt Mathilda's Spiced Tofu Soufflé last night, which is why he got so sick.

Match ONE from this column…

…with ONE from this one!

If the German Shepherd didn't eat that tofu last night,

he wouldn't have gotten so sick.

If the German Shepherd had eaten that tofu last night,

he must not have gotten very sick.

If the German Shepherd hadn't eaten that tofu last night,

ó

he would be getting very sick.

If the German Shepherd ate that tofu last night,

he must have gotten awfully sick.

 

Don't let Geronimo's German Shepherd eat any more, or he'll make a mess on the carpet!

Match ONE from this column…

…with ONE from this one!

Whenever you let his German Shepherd eat too much,

he will make a mess on the carpet!

Suppose you let his German Shepherd eat too much more,

he always makes a mess on the carpet!

If you had let his German Shepherd eat any more,

and he makes a mess on the carpet!

If you let his German Shepherd eat any more,

ó

he might make a mess on the carpet!

 

 

Aunt Mathilda's Tofu dishes always make Geronimo's German Shepherd sick.

Match ONE from this column…

…with ONE from this one!

If the German Shepherd eats Mathilda's Tofu dishes,

he always got sick.

Whenever the German Shepherd eats Mathilda's Tofu dishes,

ó

he will get sick again like last time.

If the German Shepherd is eating Mathilda's Tofu dishes,

he must get sick all of the time.

If the German Shepherd has eaten Mathilda's Tofu dishes,

he always gets sick.

 

Geronimo's German Shepherd is always getting sick on Mathilda's Tofu because he gobbles down so much of it!

Match ONE from this column…

…with ONE from this one!

If the German Shepherd gobbles down too much of her Tofu,

he won't get that sick on it.

If the German Shepherd had gobbled down so much of her Tofu,

he would have been getting sick on it.

If the German Shepherd didn't gobble down so much of her Tofu,

ó

he will always get sick on it.

If the German Shepherd gobbles down too much of her Tofu,

he wouldn't always get sick on it.

 

 

Brief class assessment.

1. "Here are my reasons for signing up for this course:"

 

 2. "Here is what has been helpful to my learning in this class, and that I might like to see more of:"

 

3. "Here is what has been less helpful to my learning in this class, and that I would rather see less of:"

 

4. "Here, briefly, is what I think of the tapes and listening exercises (position of accent, intonation, and so on):"

 

5. "Here is something completely new I have learned in this course:"

 

6. "Here is something I would like to see in this course:"

 

7. "Here is a suggestion I would like to make:"

 

8. "Those needs which prompted me to sign up for this course are (or are not) being satisfied, because:"

 

9. "I would (or would not) recommend this course (or this teacher) to a friend, because:"

 

First short test: /30 points = /5%

SEE SUGGESTED ANSWERS BELOW

( /10) Insert the appropriate *sn- or *gl- words from the list. Make the necessary changes.

snatch, sneak, sneer, sneeze, snicker, sniff, snotty, snoop

glance, glass, glaze, gleam, glimmer, glimpse, gloat, glow

My nosy old neighbour opened his door a crack to see who was making so much noise in the hall. When I turned around, he closed it again, but I had time to catch a __________ of the inside of his apartment. It looked lonesome, dark and scary. "Maybe he could use a cute little twenty-eight-year-old parrot, " I ____________ cynically under my breath. Poor fellow! He had the TV on. He was watching all of his old tapes: Robino et Robinette, Pisse-Partout, Le Major Pomme-Poutine, and so on -he had them all. The door opened again, and out flew his cat. I overheard a ____________ of dialogue. "Gee-whiz," I thought. "What a life!" I don't mean to ____________ at my poor old neighbours, but they live in a pretty small world!

Then, on the stair-well below, I heard the heavy, authoritarian tread of the janitor, alerted no doubt by that tiny, demented yenta "Auntie Tina", who had been hoping for ages that I might give the parrot to her. In all good faith, though, how could I do that? True, it would give her someone to talk to (I wouldn't say "to talk with"). But pour Tiny Auntie Tina was allergic to almost everything: children, carpet dust, aluminium foil, Indian music, neon lighting, -I mean it, everything. Once "T.A.T" went down to talk to the mail-man, and his Pomeranian ____________ her foot inquisitively. She (Auntie Tina, not the Pomeranian) began to ____________ fitfully. We all thought she was having a seizure!

The janitor and my nosy neighbour are two of a kind, always discreetly or indiscreetly ____________ around in other people's affairs. This time, however, the Old Broom-Pusher wasn't bothering to ____________ around. He didn't seem to care who knew that he was there -or perhaps he wanted everyone to know. I __________ at my watch. Two a.m. Great Scot! He must have been drinking an awful lot of Perrier water again. Sure enough, as he approached in the darkened hallway, the first thing I could see distinctly was his nose, ________ like a lump of phosphorous.

 

( /15) Fill in the blanks, in any way that makes sense in context and is grammatical. Use any appropriate conjugation, preposition, or quantity word. Suggest a second possible conjugation, where you see an asterisk (*).

When I finally got in last night, I (RUSH UP) _______________ from the street, because as I was getting out of the car, I (NOTICE) *_______________ a light on where there shouldn't have been one. I thought to myself angrily, "What could be going on up there this time?!" As I (STRUGGLE) *_________________ with the lock, my nosy neighbour poked his head out into the hallway and told me to try another key. Sure enough, in my nervousness, I (TRY) _________________ for almost five minutes to open the door with my laboratory key. "Is there _________________ else I can do for you?" he asked. I suggested that he put a smoke-detector in his bathroom. He (SCRATCH) _________________ his head for a minute or two and at last went away. True, while he (STAND) _________________ there, I did manage to figure out what I was doing, but no thanks to him, and by the time I got the door open, I (MAKE) *_________________ enough noise to wake the dead. As I (REACH) ______________ inside to play with the lock on the chain, more and more neighbours (START) _________________ to get up and shuffle around behind their doors. However, I was oblivious to the disturbance I (CREATE) _________________. Over the next few minutes, I (NOTICE) _________________ more and more worrisome signs of furtive activity inside my apartment. Through the crack in the door, I saw my parrot (FLY) _______________ around in the hall, and just as I reached in to turn on the light, I heard the toilet (FLUSH) _______________ . By the time I (GET) *_______________ the lock open, I (ASK) *_______________ myself some pretty hard questions. First of all, why (NEGATION, FIRST PERSON SINGULAR, LOCK UP) _________________ that blasted parrot of mine before going out that day? In fact, I thought, raging at my foolish negligence, why (NEGATION, FIRST PERSON SINGLULAR, LOCK UP) _______________ that blinking blessed bird every day before going out, as a matter of habit?

 

( /10) Complete the sentences in a way that makes sense and is grammatical.

Once she had taught the parrot to open the refrigerator, ….

Once, she taught the parrot to open the refrigerator, …

Since you went to see that movie, …

Since you are the one who went to see that movie, …

For as long as I can remember, I…

For as long as I live, I …

By 2001, I …

By now, I …

By 2010, I …

Until 2001, I …

Until now, I …

Until 2010, I …

SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO FIRST TEST

When I finally got in last night, I RUSHed UP from the street, because as I was getting out of the car, I NOTICEd / had noticed a light on where there shouldn't have been one. I thought to myself angrily, "What could be going on up there this time?!" As I STRUGGLEd / was struggling with the lock, my nosy neighbour poked his head out into the hallway and told me to try another key. Sure enough, in my nervousness, I had been TRYing for almost five minutes to open the door with my laboratory key. "Is there ANYTHING else I can do for you?" he asked. I suggested that he put a smoke-detector in his bathroom. He SCRATCHed his head for a minute or two and at last went away. True, while he was STANDing there, I did manage to figure out what I was doing, but no thanks to him, and by the time I got the door open, I was MAKing / had made enough noise to wake the dead. As I REACHed /was reaching inside to play with the lock on the chain, more and more neighbours STARTed to get up and shuffle around behind their doors. However, I was oblivious to the disturbance I had CREATEd / was creating. Over the next few minutes, I NOTICEd more and more worrisome signs of furtive activity inside my apartment. Through the crack in the door, I saw my parrot FLYing around in the hall, and just as I reached in to turn on the light, I heard the toilet FLUSH. By the time I GoT / had gotten the lock open, I was ASKing myself some pretty hard questions. First of all, why (NEGATION, FIRST PERSON SINGULAR, LOCK UP) hadn't I locked up that blasted parrot of mine before going out that day? In fact, I thought, raging at my foolish negligence, why (NEGATION, FIRST PERSON SINGLULAR, LOCK UP) didn't I lock up that blinking blessed bird every day before going out, as a matter of habit?

My nosy old neighbour opened his door a crack to see who was making so much noise in the hall. When I turned around, he closed it again, but I had time to catch a GLIMPSE of the inside of his apartment. It looked lonesome, dark and scary. "Maybe he could use a cute little twenty-eight-year-old parrot, " I SNICKERED cynically under my breath. Poor fellow! He had the TV on. He was watching all of his old tapes: Robineux et Robinette, Pisse-Partout, Le Major Pomme-Poutine, and so on -he had them all. The door opened again, and out flew his cat. I overheard a SNATCH of dialogue. "Gee-whiz," I thought. "What a life!" I don't mean to SNEER at my poor old neighbours, but they live in a pretty small world!

Then, on the stair-well below, I heard the heavy, authoritarian tread of the janitor, alerted no doubt by that tiny, demented yenta "Auntie Tina", who had been hoping for ages that I might give the parrot to her. In all good faith, though, how could I do that? True, it would give her someone to talk to (I wouldn't say "to talk with"). But pour Tiny Auntie Tina was allergic to almost everything: children, carpet dust, aluminium foil, Indian music, neon lighting, -I mean it, everything. Once "T.A.T" went down to talk to the mail-man, and his Pomeranian SNIFFED her foot inquisitively. She (Auntie Tina, not the Pomeranian) began to SNEEZE fitfully. We all thought she was having a seizure!

The janitor and my nosy neighbour are two of a kind, always discreetly or indiscreetly SNOOPING around in other people's affairs. This time, however, the Old Broom-Pusher wasn't bothering to SNEAK around. He didn't seem to care who knew that he was there -or perhaps he wanted everyone to know. I GLANCED at my watch. Two a.m. Great Scot! He must have been drinking an awful lot of Perrier water again. Sure enough, as he approached in the darkened hallway, the first thing I could see distinctly was his nose, GLOWING like a lump of phosphorous.

Once she had taught the parrot to open the refrigerator, …THAT ANIMAL WAS WOLFING DOWN HER GROCERIES ALL OF THE TIME.

Once, she taught the parrot to open the refrigerator, …ALONG WITH SOME OTHER TRICKS LIKE LOCKING THE DOOR AND FLUSHING THE TOILET.

Since you went to see that movie, …YOU HAVEN'T REALLY BEEN YOURSELF.

Since you are the one who went to see that movie, …YOU SHOULD BE THE ONE TO WRITE A LITTLE CRITIQUE ON IT.

For as long as I can remember, I…HAVE HAD PARROTS OR PETS OF ONE SORT OR ANOTHER.

For as long as I live, I …WILL REMEMBER WHAT IT WAS LIKE TOILET-TRAINING MY AUNT TINA'S DAMNED POMERANIAN.

By 2001, I …WAS READY TO GIVE MY PARROT AWAY TO ABSOLUTELY ANYONE WHO WOULD TAKE IT.

By now, I …AM ALMOST ADJUSTED TO LIFE WITH THIS GROSS BIRD.

By 2010, I … WILL UNDOUBTEDLY HAVE GIVEN HER AWAY TO A PHARMACEUTICAL LABORATORY.

Until 2001, I …REALLY AND TRULY BELIEVED IN KEEPING PETS IN APARTMENTS. THAT WAS THE YEAR MY TROUBLES STARTED.

Until now, I …HAVE BEEN ABLE TO STAND LIFE LIKE THIS, BUT WHO KNOWS HOW MUCH LONGER I WILL HOLD OUT?

Until 2010, I …INTEND TO KEEP UP MY INTERNATIONAL BIRDWATCHER'S MEMBERSHIP.

 

TALE OF A VILLAGE

Last year, like every summer, our village (TRY) __________ to save the nearby river, which, by that time, (BLOCKED UP COMPLETELY) __________ at least three times. We (HAVE) __________ no luck convincing the local military contingent that we (NOT, BE) __________ inspired to do this work by revolutionaries or dissidents. Naturally, we (JUST, WANT) __________ them to stop throwing chemical, radioactive, and human waste into our river so that we (MODAL OF ABILITY) __________ take regular baths and catch alligators for supper. In previous years, similar attempts to convince the Captain (FAIL) __________ . Then, one day, we (REALIZE) __________ that by the time we (CONVINCE) __________ him, the entire village (BE) __________ destroyed by disease or poisoning. Because of my age and musculature, I (CHOSE) __________ by the others to speak to this monster. I said, "Honourable sir, our elders and wise men (CALCULATE) __________ that by the year 2010, our children (DIE) __________ at the rate of one or more per week, and our wives (NO LONGER, VERB OF ABILITY) __________ __________ nurse our babies. Furthermore, it is certain that all of our farm animals (DIE) __________ long before then." Before I (MODAL OF ABILITY) __________ say any more than that, he (ALREADY, HAVE) __________ enough. "Why you ignorant people (CONSTANTLY, BOTHER) ____________________ me about all your emotional and cultural problems? Leave me alone now, I (TRY) __________ all week to guess the winning numbers for tonight's lottery, and you (DISTRACT) __________ me."

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Last year, like every summer, our village (TRIED) to save the nearby river, which, by that time, (HAD BLOCKED UP COMPLETELY) at least three times. We (HAD HAD) no luck convincing the local military contingent that we (HAD NOT BEEN) inspired to do this work by revolutionaries or dissidents. Naturally, we (JUST WANTED) them to stop throwing chemical, radioactive, and human waste into our river so that we (COULD, WOULD BE ABLE TO) take regular baths and catch alligators for supper. In previous years, similar attempts to convince the Captain (HAD FAILED). Then, one day, we (REALIZED) that by the time we (HAD CONVINCED) him, the entire village (WOULD HAVE (ALREADY) BEEN) destroyed by disease or poisoning. Because of my age and musculature, I (WAS CHOSEN) by the others to speak to this monster. I said, "Honourable sir, our elders and wise men (CALCULATE / HAVE CALCULATED) that by the year 2010, our children (WILL BE DYING) at the rate of one or more per week, and our wives (WILL NO LONGER BE ABLE TO) nurse their babies. Furthermore, it is certain that all of our farm animals (WILL DIE / WILL HAVE DIED) long before then." Before I (COULD) say any more than that, he (HAD ALREADY HAD) enough. "Why ARE you ignorant people (CONSTANTLY BOTHERING) me about all your emotional and cultural problems? Leave me alone now, I (HAVE BEEN TRYING) all week to guess the winning numbers for tonight's lottery, and you (ARE DISTRACTING) me."

Complete the sentences in the following monologue in any way that makes sense in context and is grammatical.

Last night, I came home very late, and from the street I noticed a light on. As I (WALK)________________ up to the apartment, I (BEGIN, HAVE)_______________ a sinking feeling that ________________ was wrong. By the time I (REACH) ________________ the door, I (ACTUALLY, PRAY) ________________ that there was ________________ serious going on. I told myself in a calm voice that I (MODAL +LEAVE) ________________ that light on, or else the janitor (MODAL+COME IN) _________________. I believe it _________________ have been at least one o'clock, because I turned on the T.V. and found that the midnight news program (TIME WORD, PASS) ____________________. It seemed that _______________ in the building (TIME WORD, BE) __________________ asleep except for my parrot. Oh, Lord, no!

I (OWN)__________________ this crazy bird ________________ almost three years now, and she (AGE)________________ me by almost five times that much. Yet, I am used to pets: I (HAVE)_________________ at least ten different kinds (TIME WORD)_________________, and I'm sure this one (NEGATIVE + BE)__________________ the last -unless, of course, she (DRIVE) _________________ me crazy and they (MODAL+TAKE) ________________ me away to the "funny-farm".

Actually, there would be ______________________ surprising about that, and it surely wouldn’t be _____________________ new for my parrot, since this ugly little animal (TIME WORD, DRIVE) ______________________ three previous owners crazy! (TIME WORD, YOU, LIVE) _______________________ with a parrot? If so, maybe you can imagine why my parrot and I (TIME WORD, HAVE) _____________________ a room-mate; if not, I'm sure you will understand before you (FINISH) ____________________ this text. By the time I (FINISH, WRITE) __________________ it, I (FINISH) __________________ this tube of Prozac. Of course, if I don't actually "crack up", my parrot and I (CONTINUE) __________________ to "live alone together", like a lot of other people I know!

Anyway, as I was saying, when I finally got home my parrot was furious, even though I (HAVE, ONLY) _____________________ two or three A&W root beers. She asked me why I (NOT, CALL) _____________________, and I said that there was no answer, and that I (LEAVE) ______________________ two or three messages on the answering machine. I suspect that the main reason for her irritation was ___________________ problem she (MODAL+HAVE)___________________ while I was away. I don’t know why didn’t just call her mother. That’s what she (MODAL+DO) __________________. I just (MODAL+UNDERSTAND)________________ what she was trying to say to me.

All night long, she (MODAL OF PERSISTENCE + SCREAM AND CALL) ___________________ me terrible names, and by two o'clock she (ARGUE) ___________________ with me in such a loud voice that she (WAKE UP) ___________________ the neighbours. Just as I (BEGIN, THINK) ___________________ that she would calm down, she (START, SHRIEK) ___________________ something about my hairs in the sink and other little things that (IRRITATE) ____________________ her that day. At last, I (BECOME) ____________________ exasperated and (THREATEN)_____________________ to make parrot curry. She ignored my threats and said that she had (QUANTITY WORD) ______________________ idea why she (TIME WORD, LIVE) __________________ with a loser like me. She said that she (SPEND) __________________ the whole day worrying about where I was- in fact she (EVEN, TRY)__________________ to call the janitor to help her find me!

Now, I (HAVE)_____________________ a very long and hard day, and I (TIME WORD + EAT + QUANTITY WORD) ______________________, so I simply (ANSWER)____________________ that she was (TIME WORD)__________ a fine young chick and that there was plenty of time for her to make other arrangements if she wasn't happy! Then I looked at my watch and (DECIDE) ____________________ that I (HAVE) ____________________ enough. Really, it was time to stop (SCREAM AND FIGHT) _______________________. I realised that at that point, we (ARGUE, NON-STOP) _______________________ (TIME WORD)__________________ three hours. I (TRY) _______________________ to reason with this damned bird (TIME WORD) _______________________ midnight, and there wasn't (QUANTIFIER) _______________________ more that I could say, so I (START, GET READY) _______________________ for bed.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Last night, I came home very late, and from the street I noticed a light on. As I WALKED / WAS WALKING up to the apartment, I BEGAN TO HAVE / BEGAN HAVING a sinking feeling that SOMETHING was wrong. By the time I REACHED /??HAD REACHED the door, I WAS ACTUALLY PRAYING that there was NOTHING serious going on. I told myself in a calm voice that I MUST HAVE LEFT that light on, or else the janitor MIGHT HAVE COME IN. I believe it MUST have been at least one o'clock, because I turned on the T.V. and found that the midnight news program HAD ALREADY PASSED. It seemed that EVERYONE / EVERYBODY in the building WAS ALREADY asleep except for my parrot. Oh, Lord, no!

I OWNED this crazy bird FOR almost three years now, and she HAS AGED me by almost five times that much. Yet, I am used to pets: I HAVE HAD at least ten different kinds SO FAR, and I'm sure this one WON'T BE the last -unless, of course, she DRIVES me crazy and they HAVE TO TAKE me away to the "funny-farm".

Actually, there would be NOTHING surprising about that, and it surely wouldn’t be ANYTHING new for my parrot, since this ugly little animal HAS ALREADY DRIVEN three previous owners crazy! HAVE YOU EVER LIVED with a parrot? If so, maybe you can imagine why my parrot and I STILL DON'T HAVE a room-mate; if not, I'm sure you will understand before you FINISH this text. By the time I FINISH WRITING it, I WILL HAVE FINISHED this tube of Prozac. Of course, if I don't actually "crack up", my parrot and I WILL CONTINUE to "live alone together", like a lot of other people I know!

Anyway, as I was saying, when I finally got home my parrot was furious, even though I HAD ONLY HAD two or three A&W root beers. She asked me why I HAD NOT CALLED, and I said that there was no answer, and that I HAD LEFT two or three messages on the answering machine. I suspect that the main reason for her irritation was SOME problem she MUST HAVE HAD while I was away. I don’t know why didn’t just call her mother. That’s what she SHOULD HAVE DONE. I just COULDN'T UNDERSTAND what she was trying to say to me.

All night long, she KEPT SCREAMING AND CALLING me terrible names, and by two o'clock she WAS ARGUING with me in such a loud voice that she HAD WOKEN UP the neighbours. Just as I WAS BEGINNING TO THINK that she would calm down, she STARTED TO SHRIEK / STARTED SHRIEKING something about my hairs in the sink and other little things that HAD IRRITATED / HAD BEEN IRRITATING her that day. At last, I BECAME exasperated and THREATENED to make parrot curry. She ignored my threats and said that she had NO idea why she WAS STILL LIVING with a loser like me. She said that she HAD SPENT the whole day worrying about where I was- in fact she HAD EVEN TRIED to call the janitor to help her find me!

Now, I HAD HAD a very long and hard day, and I HADN'T EATEN ANYTHING, so I simply ANSWERED that she was STILL a fine young chick and that there was plenty of time for her to make other arrangements if she wasn't happy! Then I looked at my watch and DECIDED that I HAD HAD enough. Really, it was time to stop SCREAMING AND FIGHTING. I realised that at that point, we HAD BEEN ARGUING / HAD ARGUED NON-STOP FOR three hours. I HAD BEEN TRYING to reason with this damned bird SINCE midnight, and there wasn't MUCH / ANYTHING more that I could say, so I STARTED TO GET READY / GETTING READY for bed.

Create sentences containing the following expressions.

UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY

UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY

SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY

SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY

SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR

FOR SOME TIME ALREADY

FROM THE WAY HE WALKS

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS

AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON

BY 1945

BY 2001

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

We won't be able to declare for dependants UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY.

We don't have any other family, so we really won't be able to declare for dependants UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY.

There's no point in cleaning you apartment so fanatically SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY.

There haven't been any complaints about indecent noise levels, not SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY.

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY she forgot about it completely.

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY and some big ugly grackle came and made a mess on it.

Grackles have soiled and spoiled her laundry SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR.

She has been thinking of some other way to dry her clothes FOR SOME TIME ALREADY.

You can tell that his jeans aren't quite dry FROM THE WAY HE WALKS.

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS to the store until he gets back should be long enough for his jeans to dry out properly.

Now that Olga has a baby on the way, we should offer to do some of the laundry for her AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON.

BY 1945, the shooting war had ended and the cold one was just beginning.

BY 2010, the cold war will have been effectively over for one full generation, and others may well be then being fought / may well then be in progress.

 

CONJUGATE THE VERBS AS REQUIRED.

Dear Olga: I (WRITE)_____________ to you to tell you about the big explosion we (have) _____________ here yesterday at the Journey's Over Inn. A fire (START)_____________ in the kitchen at about 3:00. The fire-fighters finally (COME)_____________ at about 5:00, and by then the fire (SPREAD)_____________ to the entire hotel. We (COME)_____________ home from school when we (SEE)_____________ the fire-trucks (SPEED)_____________ by. We (JUST, DECIDE)_____________ to go see the fire, when a whole lot of ambulances (GO)_____________ by too! My friend (SAY)_____________: "There (PROBABLY BE)_____________ many people at the Inn". I (WANT, SEE)_____________ if there were any victims, so we (START, RUN)_____________. As we (APPROACH) _____________ the Inn, we (HEAR)_____________ a terrible explosion and several smaller ones which (ECHO)_____________ many times. When we (GET)_____________ there, smoke (COME)_____________ out of the second-floor windows. People (YELL)_____________ for help or (SCREAM)_____________ in fear or pain. We saw some fire-fighters (CLIMB)_____________ their ladders into the open windows. The fire fighters (RESCUE)_____________ almost everybody. Unfortunately, there (BE)_____________ one serious injury which I (NOT, SEE) _____________. A dog trainer (STAY)_____________ at the Journey's Over Inn at the time of the fire. One of his dogs (JUMP)_____________ from the window while his master (TRY, TEACH)_____________ him a new trick. The dog (SPRAIN) _____________ its leg while the trainer (TRY, PULL)_____________ it back inside. The dog trainer's impresario also (STAY) ________________ at that hotel that week, but we didn't see his Jaguar in the parking lot. Maybe he happened to be out at the time. Maybe he (ALREADY, CHECK OUT) _______________ on the day of the fire. (WRITE)_____________ to you again when I (FIND)_____________ more paper.

Love, your friend Ludmilla.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS:

Dear Olga: I (WRITE) AM WRITING to you to tell you about the big explosion we (have) HAD here yesterday at the Journey's Over Inn. A fire (START) STARTED in the kitchen at about 3:00. The fire-fighters finally (COME) CAME at about 5:00, and by then the fire (SPREAD) HAD SPREAD to the entire hotel. We (COME) WERE COMING home from school when we (SEE) SAW the fire-trucks (SPEED) SPEEDING by. We (JUST, DECIDE) HAD JUST DECIDED to go see the fire, when a whole lot of ambulances (GO) WENT by too! My friend (SAY) SAID: "There (PROBABLY BE) PROBABLY AREN'T many people at the Inn". I (WANT, SEE) WANTED TO SEE if there were any victims, so we (START, RUN) STARTED RUNNING. As we (APPROACH) APPROACHED / WERE APPROACHING the Inn, we (HEAR) HEARD a terrible explosion and several smaller ones which (ECHO) ECHOED many times. When we (GET) GOT there, smoke (COME) WAS COMING out of the second-floor windows. People (YELL) WERE YELLING for help or (SCREAM) SCREAMING in fear or pain. We saw some fire-fighters (CLIMB) CLIMBING their ladders into the open windows. The fire fighters (RESCUE) RESCUED almost everybody. Unfortunately, there (BE) WAS one serious injury which I (NOT, SEE) DIDN'T SEE. A dog trainer (STAY) WAS STAYING at the Journey's Over Inn at the time of the fire. One of his dogs (JUMP) JUMPED from the window while his master (TRY, TEACH) WAS TRYING TO TEACH him a new trick. The dog (SPRAIN) SPRAINED its leg while the trainer (TRY, PULL) WAS TRYING TO PULL it back inside. The dog trainer's impresario also (STAY) HAD BEEN STAYING at that hotel that week, but we didn't see his Jaguar in the parking lot. Maybe he happened to be out at the time. Maybe he (ALREADY, CHECK OUT) HAD ALREADY CHECKED OUT on the day of the fire. I (WRITE) WILL WRITE to you again when I (FIND) FIND more paper.

 

Some examples of non-latinate words in current English.

[*gl-] glabrous glamour gleam glint gloat glower glut grab grapple graspgrave greet grin grisly gristle groan groin grope gross growl grumble grunt guru

[*sn-] ensnare knot noose snack snake snare snatch sneak sneaker sneersneeze snicker snide snitch snoop snooze sniff sniffle snort snot snotty snuff snuffle

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "*GL-" AND "*SN-" WORDS.

From the very beginning, the prisoner's attitude was one of contempt and defiance. When the judge asked him whether he had anything to say, he just ________________. The prisoner had been a ministerial secretary, and he had been caught ________________ in the minister's private letters. The defense lawyer was worried about losing the case, and he wore a very ______________ expression. Members of the public crowded into the courtroom. Most had never seen such a place in their whole lives, and they ______________ incredulously at the prisoner in chains and the guards in their fancy uniforms.

CHOOSE THE WORD THAT BEST SUITS THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES; MAKE UP YOUR OWN EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER TWO.

1) sneer, sneered, sneering, sneeringly

"We don't usually accept new members without reviewing their genealogical tree first," the receptionist remarked ________.

2) gloat, gloated, gloating

"I finished my homework before you," she ________.

3) grinned, grimaced, glared

The prisoner ________ defiantly at his executioners.

4) glowed, glowing, glowingly

The reviewer spoke __________ of the dancer's finely tuned performance.

5) glance at, gaze at, goggle at

Several passers-by stopped to __________ the hapless victims.

6) ensnared, snooped, snapped up

The dingoes __________ the remaining pieces.

7) listing, unlisted, listlessness, listlessly

The survivors squatted in front of their devastated homes and gazed __________.

8) glazed, glassy, glossy, gloomy

After drug and electroshock treatments, the patient's eyes may have a __________ expression.

9) dazed, dazzled, dizzy

Do not allow yourself to be __________ by charismatic leaders.

10) amazingly, dismayingly, surprisingly, alarmingly

Results of the obligatory French test were so __________ that… (COMPLETE THE SENTENCE)

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

From the very beginning, the prisoner's attitude was one of contempt and defiance. When the judge asked him whether he had anything to say, he just SNEERED. The prisoner had been a ministerial secretary, and he had been caught SNOOPING AROUND in the minister's private letters. The defense lawyer was worried about losing the case, and he wore a very GLOOMY expression. Members of the public crowded into the courtroom. Most had never seen such a place in their whole lives, and they OGLED incredulously at the prisoner in chains and the guards in their fancy uniforms.

CHOOSE THE WORD THAT BEST SUITS THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES; MAKE UP YOUR OWN EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER TWO.

1) sneer, sneered, sneering, sneeringly

"We don't usually accept new members without reviewing their genealogical tree first," the receptionist remarked SNEERINGLY. (Let's suppose this is in the office of some kind of "exclusive" club.)

2) gloat, gloated, gloating

"I finished my homework before you," she GLOATED. ("She" must be his sister!)

3) grinned, grimaced, glared

The prisoner GLARED defiantly at his executioners.

4) glowed, glowing, glowingly

The reviewer spoke GLOWINGLY of the dancer's finely tuned performance. (Could be slightly ironic -perhaps the reviewer has a crush on the dancer, or just wants to show off his sensitivity to fine things?)

5) glance at, gaze at, goggle at

Several passers-by stopped to GOGGLE AT the hapless victims. (We call such people "rubber-neckers".)

6) ensnared, snooped, snapped up

The dingoes SNAPPED UP the remaining pieces. (Imagine a pack of starving coyotes gobbling up a bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken.)

7) listing, unlisted, listlessness, listlessly

The survivors squatted in front of their devastated homes and gazed LISTLESSLY.

8) glazed, glassy, glossy, gloomy

After drug and electroshock treatments, the patient's eyes may have a GLAZED / GLASSY expression.

9) dazed, dazzled, dizzy

Do not allow yourself to be DAZZLED by charismatic leaders.

10) amazingly, dismayingly, surprisingly, alarmingly

Results of the obligatory college-entrance language tests were so DISMAYINGLY WEAK that THE GOVERNMENT HAD TO DECIDE WHETHER TO CHANGE THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OR TO CHANGE THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE. (N.B.: This sentence refers to the situation in Lithuania.)

My darling little Olga,

Just after I *(RECEIVE)_______________ your silly little letter, about two weeks ago, I (HAVE)_______________ a little "incident" with my room-mate. Since then, I (BE)_______________ a little busy and I (NOT, HAVE)_______________ the time to write back. Room-mates (BE) ____________ so much trouble, sometimes. Anyway, in the past two weeks, I (HAVE)_______________ four tests, and I *(HAVE) _______________ another one tomorrow. In addition, a "friend" of mine (STAY) _______________ with me (PREP.)_______ the past two or three months. I think that in general, you could say that she (BE) _______________ a very demanding person. She certainly (BE) _______________ a disgusting little twit (PREP.)_________ she has been here. I (GET)_______________ pretty fed up!

For example, even though I (WORK) _______________ this summer and I (SPEND) _______________ the whole day feeding and cleaning the &@*ÿ!! animals, she *(INSIST)_______________ that I take her absolutely everywhere in town. So far, we (GO)_______________ to the botanical gardens, the rodeo, the planetarium, the slaughterhouse, the Nova Scotia Tower, the Museum of Dead Cultures, and at least a dozen taverns. We (STILL, NOT, FIND)_______________ a tavern or restaurant that serves the kind of root-beer she likes. Every day, she makes me take her to some damn thing or another. Yesterday we (WATCH) _______________ a wrestling match in the park, and she (REFUSE) _______________ to leave until the winner (BE DECLARED)_____________. It was a big fat guy in red pyjamas and a black mask. What a waste of time! Between (SHOW) _______________ her the city and (STUDY) _______________ for my $?&!!ÿ exams, recently I (HAVE) _______________ almost no time for anything else.

Right now, I (HEAR) _______________ her blowing her nose in the bathroom. I can tell that she *(FUTURE: BE)_______________ in there for a pretty long time, so I (FUTURE: TRY)_______________ to finish this letter tonight. It is 3:00 a.m., and I (SIT)_______________ at my desk. I usually can't sleep when someone in the bathroom (MAKE) _______________, well, you know, "certain noises". I think I (FUTURE: TIE HER UP) _______________ and put her in a taxi, and send her to St-Lambert. Or maybe I (FUTURE: TELL) _______________ the driver to take her to the bus station and leave her there!

Well, I guess that I (TALK)___________________ enough about all my problems. What about yours? (YOU, STILL, HAVE)___________________ that ugly boy-friend who (TALK)____________________ with his mouth full? (YOU, FEEL BETTER) __________________ (PREP.)_______ the doctor (GIVE) _______________ you Prozac? (YOUR DOG, DIE) __________________ yet? She was pretty sick, wasn't she? She (JUST, CELEBRATE) __________________ her twelfth birthday the last time I (SEE) __________________ her. Thank heavens that in my whole life, I (NEVER, HAVE) __________________ dogs- it would make me too sad to have a dying dog. How many dogs (YOU, HAVE) ____________________, in all? You told me once how many (YOU, HAVE) ____________________ before you (GET) __________________ this one, but I can't remember. I hope you aren't feeling too depressed about your poor old dog. Lately, I (FEEL) _______________ kind of "down" too, so I know what it's like.

I'm looking forward to (HEAR) ____________ from you soon, Love, Ludmilla

 

CORRECTION KEY

My darling little Olga,

Just after I *(RECEIVE) RECEIVED / HAD RECEIVED your silly little letter, about two weeks ago, I (HAVE) HAD a little "incident" with my room-mate. Since then, I (BE) HAVE BEEN a little busy and I (NOT, HAVE) HAVEN’T HAD the time to write back. Room-mates (BE) ARE / CAN BE so much trouble, sometimes. Anyway, in the past two weeks, I (HAVE) HAVE HAD four tests, and I *(HAVE) HAVE / AM HAVING another one tomorrow. In addition, a "friend" of mine (STAY) HAS BEEN STAYING with me (PREP.) FOR the past two or three months. I think that in general, you could say that she (BE) IS / CAN BE a very demanding person. She certainly (BE) HAS BEEN a disgusting little twit (PREP.) SINCE she has been here. I (GET) AM GETTING pretty fed up!

For example, even though I (WORK) AM WORKING this summer and I (SPEND) SPEND the whole day feeding and cleaning the &@*ÿ!! animals, she *(INSIST) INSISTS / KEEPS INSISTING that I take her absolutely everywhere in town. So far, we (GO) HAVE GONE to the botanical gardens, the rodeo, the planetarium, the slaughterhouse, the Nova Scotia Tower, the Museum of Dead Cultures, and at least a dozen taverns. We (STILL, NOT, FIND) STILL HAVE NOT FOUND a tavern or restaurant that serves the kind of root-beer she likes. Every day, she makes me take her to some damn thing or another. Yesterday we (WATCH) WERE WATCHING a wrestling match in the park, and she (REFUSE) REFUSED / KEPT REFUSING to leave until the winner (BE DECLARED) HAD BEEN DECLARED. It was a big fat guy in red pyjamas and a black mask. What a waste of time! Between (SHOW) SHOWING her the city and (STUDY) STUDYING for my $?&!!ÿ exams, recently I (HAVE) HAVE HAD almost no time for anything else.

Right now, I (HEAR) HEAR / CAN HEAR her blowing her nose in the bathroom. I can tell that she *(FUTURE: BE) IS GOING TO BE / WILL BE in there for a pretty long time, so I (FUTURE: TRY) WIL TRY to finish this letter tonight. It is 3:00 a.m., and I (SIT) AM SITTING at my desk. I usually can't sleep when someone in the bathroom (MAKE) IS MAKING, well, you know, "certain noises". I think I (FUTURE: TIE HER UP) WILL TIE HER UP and put her in a taxi, and send her to St-Lambert. Or maybe I (FUTURE: TELL) WILL TELL the driver to take her to the bus station and leave her there!

Well, I guess that I (TALK) HAVE TALKED enough about all my problems. What about yours? (YOU, STILL, HAVE) DO YOU STILL HAVE that ugly boy-friend who (TALK) TALKS with his mouth full? (YOU, FEEL BETTER) HAVE YOU BEEN FEELING BETTER (PREP.) SINCE the doctor (GIVE) GAVE / HAS BEEN GIVING you Prozac? (YOUR DOG, DIE) HAS YOUR DOG DIED yet? She was pretty sick, wasn't she? She (JUST, CELEBRATE) HAD JUST CELEBRATED her twelfth birthday the last time I (SEE) SAW her. Thank heavens that in my whole life, I (NEVER, HAVE) HAVE NEVER HAD dogs- it would make me too sad to have a dying dog. How many dogs (YOU, HAVE) HAVE YOU HAD, in all? You told me once how many (YOU, HAVE) YOU HAD HAD before you (GET) GOT this one, but I can't remember. I hope you aren't feeling too depressed about your poor old dog. Lately, I (FEEL) HAVE BEEN FEELING kind of "down" too, so I know what it's like.

I'm looking forward to (HEAR) HEARING from you soon, Love, Ludmilla

 

VOCABULARY CHALLENGE

A. SUPPLY THE SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PARTICIPIAL FORMS:

become swear fly stink

blow wear steal wear

dig write quit swim

drive forgive rise teach

fall lend slide sneak

feel fight draw grasp

mean stick beseech seek

B. FILL IN THE CHART.

 CONCRETE

ABSTRACT NOUN

VERB

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

Effect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

gratefully

 

 

 

 

Produce

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employ

 

 

 

 

Skill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

excellent

 

 

 

 

 

 

Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

make up

 

 

 

 

Diagnosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sick

 

 

Supposition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nausea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Entertain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

public

 

 

 

 

 

 

Specify

 

 

 

 

Cynic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

type

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

similar

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclude

 

 

 

 

Thought

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C. GIVE EXAMPLES i) FROM THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:

[-able-] (give an adverb)

[-mit-] (give an abstract noun)

[-rupt-] (give a negative adjective)

[audi-] (give a collective noun)

ii) FROM THE FOLLOWING ENDINGS:

[-ant]

[-hood]

[-ious]

[-ively]

D. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING ANALOGIES:

ped- : pod- :: hemi- :________

quadriped : biped :: quadriplegic : ________

soft : soften :: liquid : ________

solid: solidify :: hard : ________

E. IDENTIFY THE PART OF SPEECH FOR THE UNDERLINED WORDS:

"If you want to be an artist or a musician, but you have some misgivings about selling your soul to the public or doing something that you find crass in order to survive, you should consider a different career. Singing, for example, is definitely a field for people who want to make commercial, rather than artistic history. Many talented singers succeed only thanks to the kindly intervention of wealthy and powerful friends. In my case, I became a singer thanks to an elderly voice teacher who kindly offered me the use of his studio."

F. MAKE UP A LITTLE SENTENCE FOR EACH: enlighten; kindly; womanly; obnoxious; similarity

G. DERIVE THE CAPITALIZED WORDS APPROPRIATELY USING [-ed], [-edly], [-ing], [-ingly]:

Mont St-Casse-Tête is SUPPOSE the most EXCITE skiing centre in the area. Perhaps we should check and see. It is said to have more THRILL rides and hills than anywhere else. According to my friends who went there last week, the tickets to ski for a whole day are SURPRISE cheap. For the tourist who is fed up with all the extra hidden costs that appear EXPECT when he, she, or it takes the family to other recreational centres, Mont St-Casse-Tête might turn out to be a fair deal.

H. UNDERLINE THE WORDS a) THAT ARE NEGATIVE DERIVATIONS, AND

b) THAT HAVE A CORRESPONDING POSITIVE FORM:

amoral; decertify; demented; demoralise; deregulate; disappointing; disarmingly; disentangle; ill-bred; indignant; innocent; irate; misdirect; mismanagement; unexpectedly

 

I. DERIVE THE NEGATIVE COUNTERPART(S) FOR THE FOLLOWING: American, informed, inhibiting, literate

J. CIRCLE A VERB FROM THE FIRST LIST, THEN CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE ADVERB FROM THE SECOND:

i) The teacher GAZED, GLARED, GLOATED // FEEBLY, FIERCELY, FONDLY, FRANTICALLY, FURIOUSLY at the students who were playing poker in class.

ii) The nervous secretary knew that he really shouldn't touch anything on his supervisor's desk, but an important client had shown up at the office unexpectedly, and he insisted on being given a copy of his file. The secretary had no idea where it was. He GLANCED AT, GLIMPSED, GROPED THROUGH the papers AWKWARDLY, HASTILY, DEXTERIOUSLY.

iii) The street vagabond GLOWERED AT, GREETED, GRINNED AT, the obese tourist GRAVELY, GRIMLY, GRISLY, SNIDELY. The tourist was momentarily confused. Then the vagabond approached the tourist, and GLUMLY, SNEAKILY, SUDDENLY he ENSNARED, GRABBED, SNATCHED, SNOOPED the tourist's camcorder and ran like greased lightning!

DERIVE THE CAPITALIZED WORDS APPROPRIATELY:

"My great-uncle Leopold works for various obscure charities, quietly participating in and contributing to IMPROVE conditions all over the world. He is known for his completely INTEREST involvement in agrarian reform projects in South America and South-East Asia, to which he is constantly sending money. He is currently in East Zemestan, where he has helped found a school for children with specific ABLE .

Leopold never mentions his illustrious family tree, nor his education, both of which are quite IMPRESS . He is anything but a brilliant conversationalist, and his manners are remarkably PRETEND , in spite of his great wealth and sophisticated background. In fact, people who do not know about his true life's work find him rather INTEREST . Little do they realize that he has a SAINT love for his fellow-creatures, and that he labors DEVOTE day and night, sending food to the poor, comfort to the sick, and gifts to the DEPRIVE . When donations to one of his charitable organizations are DISAPPOINT low, he never moralizes at anyone, but simply makes up for the short-fall with his own money, or quietly arranges to obtain it from others like himself. When he approaches a person to solicit a donation, he is never aggressive. He simply waits for a "yes" or a "no", without applying any pressure, and if it is "no", he makes sure the person does not feel bad. Likewise, when people answer his requests COMMIT because they feel too guilty to say "no" outright, he is very gentle.

MORE ANALOGIES OF MEANING AND FORM:

attention : attentive :: caution : ______

guilt : guilty :: panic : ______

sad : sadness :: civil : ______

humid : humidity :: damp : damp______

safe : safety :: kind : ______

scary : afraid :: distress___ : distress___

frightened : scary :: upset : ______

try : trial :: withdraw : ______

certain : uncertainty :: adequate : ______

sensitive : insensitivity :: hope : ______

to listen placidly : to respond indignantly :: to err innocently : to commit a crime ______

To set up : to upset :: ______ : to lower

to make sthg. : to make sthg. one’s own :: to carry sthg.: to carry sthg.______

sweep the floor : sweeping reform :: start the car : ______

stop to smoke : stop smoking :: ______ : to quit

workforce : workload : final outcome : emotional ______

well-being : prosperity :: undertaking : ______

approximate : accurate :: estimate : ______

delay : procrastinate :: provoke : ______

feminine : femininity :: _______ : manhood

lungs : breathe :: ________ : ________

breath : lungs :: ________ : ________

 

DERIVE THE WORDS APPROPRIATELY:

The first burglar motioned to his partner, who stopped and held perfectly still. They then had a brief exchange in sign language to determine which window they would use; the first proposed the left one, with which the second silently ____CUR____. After ____ABL____ the alarm system, they quietly slipped inside. As their eyes adjusted to the dark, they both held perfectly still. Theirs was the sort of performance that is best put on with no ____AUD____. Then they began to look at the various museum displays. They examined the Picassos and several other canvasses ____APPRECIAT____ . These, however, were not the treasures the intruders coveted.

While many a criminal owed his ____LIV____ to his prowess at stealing and selling such secondary works of art as Renoir’s "Bloating Party" or Van Gogh’s "Shelf-Portrait", our burglars were less interested in money than in the bizarre challenge of theft for its own sake. They derived pleasure and ____FIL____ from taking things no one else would dare take, and then returning them, just to humiliate the security guards. They loved to imagine how the guards’ eyes would widen with incredulity and their mouths drop open in ____BELIEF____ when they saw what had happened. Their illegal activities were not entirely without a sense of honour and ____MIT____ to the art world. Once, for example, a priceless celluloid bust of A.G. Bell disappeared without a trace from the Boston Gallery of Phone Arts. The insurance agents had already made their reports and a new exhibit was being prepared to replace the stolen sculpture, when it ____EXPECT____ reappeared one day on the curator’s desk, with a lovely greeting card inscribed, "Have a nice day"! That was the work of our mysterious pair.

Now our mischief-loving art-thieves were cautiously approaching the special exhibit in the world-famous, impregnable Pink Panther Pavilion. The first thief stopped in his tracks, and gestured ____APPOINT____ at the sign on the door: "EXHIBIT CANCELLED FOR RENOVATIONS".

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

CONCRETE NOUN ABSTRACT NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB

gratuity (< gratification>) gratitude, gratefulness gratify, ingratiate grateful gratefully

effect efffectiveness effect effective effectively

PROduce production proDUCE productive productively

employer employment employ employed, employable

public, publicity public, publicity publicize public publicly

skill skill, skillfulness (to train) skillful skillfully

benefit (s), beneficiary benefit benefit beneficial beneficially

cynic cynicism (to sneer at) cynical cynically

(Your) Excellence excellence excel excellent excellently

type type, typology typify typical, typological typically, typologically similarity, simulation (<<<) resemble, simulate similar similarly

conclusion conclusion conclude (in)conclusive, concluding (in)conclusively

"specs" specificity specify specific specifically

evaluator, value value, evaluation value valuable, invaluable valuably, invaluably

thought thought, thoughtfulness think, think out thoughtful thoughtfully

the sick sickness sicken sick, sickly (pathologically)

diagnosis diagnostic(s) diagnose (un)diagnosable, (un)diagnosed

MAKE-up (maquillage) makeUP made-up (cosmetically)

supposition(s) supposition suppose supposed supposedly

nausea nausea nauseate nauseous, nauseating nauseatingly, ad nauseum

entertainer (<entertainment) entertain entertaining entertainingly

GIVE EXAMPLES a) FROM THE FOLLOWING ROOTS:

[-able-] (give an adverb) laughably

[-mit-] (give an abstract noun) commitment

[-rupt-] (give a negative adjective) incorruptible

[audi-] (give a collective noun) audience

b) FROM THE FOLLOWING ENDINGS:

[-ant] deviant

[-hood] maidenhood

[-ious] impervious

[-ively] disruptively

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING ANALOGIES:

ped- : pod- :: hemi- :________hemisphere

quadriped : biped :: quadriplegic : ________paraplegic

soft : soften :: liquid : ________liquefy

solid: solidify :: hard : ________harden

IDENTIFY THE PART OF SPEECH FOR THE UNDERLINED WORDS:

"If you want to be an artist or a musician, but you have some misgivings NOUN about selling DEVERBAL NOUN (GERUND) your soul to the public or doing something that you find crass ADJECTIVE in order to survive, you should consider a different career. Singing, for example, is definitely a field for people who want to make commercial, ADJECTIVE rather than artistic history. Many talented singers succeed only thanks to the kindly ADJECTIVE intervention of wealthy and powerful friends. In my case, I became a singer thanks to an elderly voice teacher who kindly ADVERB offered me the use of his studio."

NAME THE PART OF SPEECH FOR THE FOLLOWING WORDS: enlighten VERB; kindly ADJECTIVE, ADVERB; womanly ADJECTIVE; obnoxious ADJECTIVE; similarity NOUN

 

DERIVE THE CAPITALIZED WORDS APPROPRIATELY USING [-ed], [-edly], [-ing], [-ingly]:

Mont St-Casse-Tête is SUPPOSEdly the most EXCITing skiing center in the area. Perhaps we should check and see. It is said to have more THRILLing rides and hills than anywhere else. According to my friends who went there last week, the tickets to ski for a whole day are SURPRISingly cheap. For the tourist who is fed up with all the extra hidden costs that appear unEXPECTedly when he or she takes the family to other recreational centers, Mont St-Casse-Tête might turn out to be a fair deal.

UNDERLINE THE WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING a) THAT ARE NEGATIVE DERIVATIONS, AND

b) THAT HAVE A CORRESPONDING POSITIVE FORM:

amoral; decertify; demented; demoralise; deregulate; disappointing; disarmingly; disentangle; ill-bred; indignant; innocent; irate; misdirect; mismanagement; unexpectedly

DERIVE THE CAPITALIZED WORDS APPROPRIATELY:

"My great-uncle Leopold works for various obscure charities, quietly participating in and contributing to IMPROVing conditions all over the world. He is known for his completely disINTERESTed involvement in agrarian reform projects in South America and South-East Asia, to which he is constantly sending money. He is currently in East Zemestan, where he has helped found a school for children with specific disABiLities .

Leopold never mentions his illustrious family tree, nor his education, both of which are quite IMPRESSive . He is anything but a brilliant conversationalist, and his manners are remarkably un PRETENtious , in spite of his great wealth and sophisticated background. In fact, people who do not know about his true life's work find him rather unINTERESTing . Little do they realize that he has a SAINTly love for his fellow-creatures, and that he labors DEVOTEdly day and night, sending food to the poor, comfort to the sick, and gifts to the DEPRIVEd . When donations to one of his charitable organisations are DISAPPOINTingly low, he never moralises at anyone, but simply makes up for the short-fall with his own money, or quietly arranges to obtain it from others like himself. When he approaches a person to solicit a donation, he is never aggressive. He simply waits for a "yes" or a "no", without applying any pressure, and if it is "no", he makes sure the person does not feel bad. Likewise, when people answer his requests non-COMMITally because they feel too guilty to say "no" outright, he is very gentle.

DERIVE THE NEGATIVE COUNTERPART(S) FOR THE FOLLOWING: un-/anti/non-American, un-/misinformed, uninhibiting, illiterate

CIRCLE A VERB FROM THE FIRST LIST, THEN CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE ADVERB FROM THE SECOND ONE:

a) The teacher GAZED, GLARED, GLOATED // FEEBLY, FIERCELY, FONDLY, FRANTICALLY, FURIOUSLY at the students who were playing poker in class.

b) The nervous secretary knew that he really shouldn't touch anything on his supervisor's desk, but an important client had shown up at the office unexpectedly, and he insisted on being given a copy of his file. The secretary had no idea where it was. He GLANCED AT, GLIMPSED, GROPED THROUGH the papers AWKWARDLY, HASTILY, DEXTERIOUSLY.

c) The street vagabond GLOWERED AT, GREETED, GRINNED AT, the obese tourist GRAVELY, GRIMLY, GRISLY, SNIDELY. The tourist was momentarily confused. Then the vagabond approached the tourist, and GLUMLY, SNEAKILY, SUDDENLY he ENSNARED, GRABBED, SNATCHED, SNOOPED the tourist's camcorder and ran like greased lightning!

MORE ANALOGIES OF MEANING AND FORM:

attention : attentive :: caution : ______cautious

guilt : guilty :: panic : ______panicky

sad : sadness :: civil : ______civility

humid : humidity :: damp : ______damp, dampness

safe : safety :: kind : ______kindness, kindliness

scary : afraid :: distress___ : distress___distressed

frightened : scary :: upset : ______upsetting

try : trial :: withdraw : ______withdrawal

certain : uncertainty :: adequate : ______inadequacy

sensitive : insensitivity :: hope : ______hopelessness

to listen placidly : to respond indignantly :: to err innocently : to commit a crime ______ willfully

to set up : to upset :: ______to raise : to lower

to make sthg. : to make sthg. one’s own :: to carry sthg.: to carry sthg.______through

sweep the floor : sweeping reform :: start the car : ______starting wages

stop to smoke : stop smoking :: ______to go do : to quit doing

workforce : workload : final outcome : emotional ______outburst

well-being : prosperity :: undertaking : ______enterprise

approximate : accurate :: estimate : ______precise/precision

delay : procrastinate :: provoke : _______goad

feminine : femininity :: _______manly : manhood

lungs : breathe :: ________ pores: ________ secrete

breath : lungs :: ________ secretion : ________ pores

DERIVE THE WORDS APPROPRIATELY:

The first burglar motioned to his partner, who stopped and held perfectly still. They then had a brief exchange in sign language to determine which window they would use; the first proposed the left one, with which the second silently CONCURRED. After DISABLING the alarm system, they quietly slipped inside. As their eyes adjusted to the dark, they both held perfectly still. Theirs was the sort of performance that is best put on with no AUDIENCE. Then they began to look at the various museum displays. They examined the Picassos and several other canvasses APPRECIATIVELY . These, however, were not the treasures the intruders coveted.

While many a criminal owed his LIVLIHOOD to his prowess at stealing and selling such secondary works of art as Renoir’s "Bloating Party" or Van Gogh’s "Shelf-Portrait", our burglars were less interested in money than in the bizarre challenge of theft for its own sake. They derived pleasure and FULFILMENT from taking things no one else would dare take, and then returning them, just to humiliate the security guards. They loved to imagine how the guards’ eyes would widen with incredulity and their mouths drop open in DISBELIEF when they saw what had happened. Their illegal activities were not entirely without a sense of honour and COMMITMENT to the art world. Once, for example, a priceless celluloid bust of A.G. Bell disappeared without a trace from the Boston Gallery of Phone Arts. The insurance agents had already made their reports and a new exhibit was being prepared to replace the stolen sculpture, when it UNEXPECTEDLY reappeared one day on the curator’s desk, with a lovely greeting card inscribed, "Have a nice day"! That was the work of our mysterious pair.

Now our mischief-loving art-thieves were cautiously approaching the special exhibit in the world-famous, impregnable Pink Panther Pavilion. The first thief stopped in his tracks, and gestured DISAPPOINTEDLY at the sign on the door: "EXHIBIT CANCELLED FOR RENOVATIONS".

Prolegomena, by Ken Bernard

from FICTION INTERNATIONAL (copyright 1991)

 

Let us grant that anything I say may be used against me.

Let us grant that whatever I say it is all untrue but may for various expediencies be accepted as true, that we are entered here, as in an unholy matrimony, into an agreement to play the game, abiding by its rules, and pretending to enjoy its satisfactions, breath by dying breath.

Let us grant that this pretense is no different from any other pretense, except that it is understood that some games are considered better than others but opinions vary as to which.

Let us grant that although I claim to be the author of these words and am reading them, I do not exist.

Let us grant that although I do not exist, neither do I wish to be harmed. Even so, if I bleed, I will continue to deny that I exist, even as I continue to admit that I wrote these words and seek medical care for myself.

Let us grant, however, that I do not claim to write (or speak) these words in blood.

 

Let us grant that you do not exist either. Although you are listening and responding to what I read, you have no understanding of it because you do not know what it is. Further, you are each responding differently to what you don't understand, but because of the seating arrangements, the ticket price, the program, and other such formalities it might seem that you share something or that we share something or that there is something to share.