Direct speech to indirect speech.

"And why is your homework late this time?" the teacher demanded.

"I had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix last night," the student replied sadly.

"You see, class," the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room, "You must never, ever wait until the night before you have a trophy to hand in to start making your mixes. Start at least one week ahead!"

"But Maíam," the poor child protested in a feeble whistle, "I did do as you told us to! I think the ingredients fermented during the week."

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

"And why is your homework late this time?" the teacher demanded.

The teacher demanded to know the reason for his homework being late --again.

The teacher asked accusingly why his homework was late --again.

"I had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix last night," the student replied sadly.

The student replied sadly that he had had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix the night before.

"You see, class," the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room, "You must never, ever wait until the night before you have a trophy to hand in to start making your mixes. Start at least one week ahead!"

Straightaway, the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room that the students should absolutely never wait until the night before there was a trophy to hand in to start making the necessary mixes, which should be prepared at least one week beforehand.

"But Maíam," the poor child protested in a feeble whistle, "I did do as you told us to! I think the ingredients fermented during the week."

The hapless child protested in a feeble whistle that he had in fact done just as she had advised, only it seemed that the ingredients had fermented during the week.

 

Convert from the conditional form to independent clauses with expressions like so, because, thatís why, and so on.

If John had only remembered to hand in his trophy on time, the teacher would have given him full marks.

John forgot that one essential thing: to hand in his trophy on time, so the teacher didn't give him full marks.

The teacher didn't give John full marks for his trophy, because he had forgotten to hand it in on time.

If you could start handing yours in on time, the teacher would always give you full marks too.

Start handing your in on time, and she'll always give you full marks too.

If you hadnít given handed in that soggy, wet trophy at the beginning of the term, he would be less attentive to all the little mistakes you make now.

He is so attentive to all the little mistakes you make now because of that soggy, wet trophy you handed in at the beginning of the term.

Convert into appropriate conditional forms, with essentially the same meaning.

He gave me extra marks for using genuine silk thread!

He wouldn't have given me extra marks if I hadn't used genuine silk thread!

I noticed that he hadnít added up my points properly, and he had to change my grade.

He wouldn't have had to change my grade if he had added up my points properly (and if I hadn't noticed).

He never gives you good grades because of that sloppy homework you gave him back in May.

If you hadn't given him all that sloppy homework back in May, he would give/be giving you good/better grades.

He always gives me good grades because I clean up the dissection table every day. Besides, my homework is always kissing clean!!

He might not always give me such grades if I didn't clean up the dissection table every day, and perhaps too if my homework weren't always kissing clean (unlike some people's!).

Create sentences containing the following expressions.

UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY

UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY

SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY

SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY

SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR

FOR SOME TIME ALREADY

FROM THE WAY HE WALKS

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS

AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON

BY 1945

BY 2001

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

We won't be able to declare for dependents UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY.

We don't have any other family, so we really won't be able to declare for dependents UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY.

There's no point in cleaning you apartment so fanatically SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY.

There haven't been any complaints about indecent noise levels, not SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY.

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY she forgot about it completely.

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY and some big ugly grackle came and made a mess on it.

Grackles have soiled and spoiled her laundry SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR.

She has been thinking of some other way to dry her clothes FOR SOME TIME ALREADY.

You can tell that his jeans aren't quite dry FROM THE WAY HE WALKS.

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS to the store until he gets back should be long enough for his jeans to dry out properly.

Now that Olga has a baby on the way, we should offer to do some of the laundry for her AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON.

BY 1945, the shooting war had ended and the cold one was just beginning.

BY 2010, the cold war will have been effectively over for one full generation, and others may well be then being fought / may well then be in progress.

Answer with the appropriate inverted forms.

Q: Do you make friends at school?

A: (ONLY OCCASIONALLY)

Q: Surely you have them for supper sometimes, donít you?

A: (SELDOM)

Q: Do you serve steam-baked "apples", or lizard curry?

A: (RARELY, NOR)

Q: After your parties, do they ever require medical attention or have to call 911?

A: (HARDLY EVER)

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Q: Do you make friends at school?

A: ONLY OCCASIONALLY do I make friends at school.

Q: Surely you have them for supper sometimes, donít you?

A: SELDOM do I have them for supper.

Q: Do you serve steam-baked "apples", or lizard curry?

A: Rarely do I serve steam-baked apples, nor do I serve lizard curry!

Q: After your parties, do they ever require medical attention or have to call 911?

A: HARDLY EVER does anyone require medical attention or have to call 911.

 

A TALE OF TWO PATIENTS (22 + 3)

Once upon a time, two very, very old friends, who (BE) ____________ room-mates ever since they (STUDY LANDSCAPING) ____________ in university, (DECIDE) ____________ that they (HAVE) ____________ enough of life together, and so they (CHOOSE) ____________ a doctor from the yellow pages and (TRY, MAKE) ____________ two appointments with him for the same day. They (BELIEVE) ____________ that this (BE) ____________ like playing Russian roulette with three bullets instead of only one, i.e., since there (MODAL, NOT, BE) ____________ much more than a fifty per cent chance of surviving a visit to any of the "doctors" in their town, one of them (CERTAINLY, DIE) ____________ if they both (GO) ____________. For some time, both (THINK) ____________ of trying something like this, so that at least one of them (HAVE) ____________ a few years of peace. Besides, the choice (BE) ____________ completely random and fair. True, their understanding of probability (MODAL, BE) ____________ rather limited, but, after all, it's the thought that counts, right? Besides, they (MODAL, STILL, PAY) ____________ back their student loans, so they (NOT, MODAL) ____________ go back to school to take the math courses necessary to analyse their situation correctly. Anyway, on the day of their appointments, while the first "patient" (SAT) in the waiting room, a magazine entitled "UFO's TODAY" caught his idle gaze. He (READ) ____________ it for about five minutes when he (BEGAN, REALIZE) ____________ that since he (ENTER) ____________ the room, he (FEEL) ____________ a bit nauseous, and that he (FEEL) ____________ sicker and sicker every minute. At last, just as the doctor was saying good-bye to the previous patient... (YOU COMPLETE THIS STORY!)

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Once upon a time, two very, very old friends, who (BE) HAD BEEN room-mates ever since they (STUDY LANDSCAPING) HAD STUDIED LANDSCAPING in university, (DECIDE) DECIDED that they (HAVE) HAD HAD enough of life together, and so they (CHOOSE) CHOSE a doctor from the yellow pages and (TRY, MAKE) TRY TO MAKE two appointments with him for the same day. They (BELIEVE) BELIEVED that this (BE) WOULD BE like playing Russian roulette with three bullets instead of only one, i.e., since there (MODAL, NOT, BE) COULDN'T BE much more than a fifty per cent chance of surviving a visit to any of the "doctors" in their town, one of them (CERTAINLY, DIE) WOULD CERTAINLY DIE if they both (GO) WENT. For some time, both (THINK) HAD BEEN THINKING of trying something like this, so that at least one of them (HAVE) SHOULD/WOULD HAVEa few years of peace. Besides, the choice (BE) WOULD BE completely random and fair. True, their understanding of probability (MODAL, BE) MAY HAVE BEEN rather limited, but, after all, it's the thought that counts, right? Besides, they (MODAL, STILL, PAY) STILL HAD TO PAY back their student loans, so they (NOT, MODAL) COULDN'T/WEREN'T ABLE go back to school to take the math courses necessary to analyse their situation correctly. Anyway, on the day of their appointments, while the first "patient" (SAT) SAT/WAS SITTING in the waiting room, a magazine entitled "UFO's TODAY" caught his idle gaze. He (READ) HAD BEEN READING it for about five minutes when he (BEGAN, REALIZE) TO REALIZE that since he (ENTER) HAD ENTERED the room, he (FEEL) HAD BEEN FEELING a bit nauseous, and that he (FEEL) WAS FEELING sicker and sicker every minute. At last, just as the doctor was saying good-bye to the previous patient...

 

EXTRA EXERCISES (NOT GIVEN IN CLASS -JUST FOR FUN)

Assemble the parts to make complex sentences containing adjective clauses. Make sure that you use acceptable "connectors".

I met the woman.

She is the delinquent boy's mother.

I met the woman.

Her son is always eating garlic.

I met the woman.

I gave her son some parsley for his breath.

I met the woman.

We talked about her.

I met the woman.

We talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home about her.

I met the woman.

We talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home about her son.

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her.

We were talking about her at lunch yesterday.

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her.

We were talking about her son at lunch yesterday.

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her son.

We were talking about him at lunch yesterday.

The woman wants the neighbours to stop gossiping.

They keep calling the police for nothing.

CORRECTION KEY

I met the woman WHO is the delinquent boy's mother.

(WHO HAS A DELINQUENT SON)

I met the woman WHOSE son is always eating garlic.

I met the woman TO WHOSE son I GAVE some parsley for his breath.

I met the woman WHOM we (HAD) talked about.

I met the woman WHOM we talked ABOUT all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home.

(...ABOUT WHOM WE TALKED...)

I met the woman ABOUT WHOSE SON we talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home.

The woman WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY wants us to stop gossiping about her.

The woman WHOSE SON WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY wants us to stop gossiping about her.

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her son.

We were talking about him at lunch yesterday.

THE WOMAN WHOSE SON WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY WANTS US TO STOP GOSSIPING ABOUT HIM.

The woman wants the neighbours to stop gossiping.

They keep calling the police for nothing.

THE WOMAN WANTS THE NEIGHBORS, WHO KEEP CALLING THE POLICE FOR NOTHING, TO STOP GOSSIPING.

 

Combine to form concise paragraphs containing restrictive or non-restrictive adjective clauses.

1. He saved the young boys from the bomb-shelter before it collapsed.

He was congratulated by the peace-keepers for this.

2. The shelling continued all night, and knocked out the power.

This made it very difficult for me to finish the book I was trying to read.

It was about Family Planning.

3. The sergeant chose the healthiest young men for the peace march.

The village could offer none healthier.

Villagers in favour of the war would not dare throw rocks at them.

4. The Franistani rebels were demanding an immediate return to their traditional orthographic system.

Even educated Western journalists rarely spell their names correctly.

They also demanded that map-makers and geography teachers all over the world stop representing their country as a red lozenge.

They say that red is a hated symbol of communism, and furthermore that the lozenge has indecent connotations in their culture.

CORRECTION KEY

1. He saved the young boys from the bomb-shelter before it collapsed.

FOR WHICH he was congratulated by the peace-keepers.

2. The shelling continued all night, and knocked out the power,

WHICH made it very difficult for me to finish the book about F.P. (that) I was trying to read.

3. For the peace march, the sergeant chose the healthiest young men (that) the village could offer, (at) whom villagers in favour of the war would not dare throw rocks (at).

4. The Franistani rebels, whose names even educated Western journalists rarely spell correctly, were demanding an immediate return to their traditional orthographic system.

They also demanded that map-makers and geography teachers all over the world stop representing their country as a red lozenge, which they say evokes both a hated symbol of communism as well as a shape that has indecent connotations in their culture.

Put the following simple sentences together to form a complex one containing a well-formed adjective clause.

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Several of them were highly flammable.

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Two of them have worked for Dizney Studios.

a: The decorations were made of carved styrofoam.

b: They were supposed to make the place look like a cemetery.

a: The children were not at all impressed.

b: They said that it looked like cafeteria garbage.

a: My brother's feelings were hurt.

b: He had worked the hardest.

a: The children did not even come inside.

b: We had especially invited them.

a: My brothers' wives were particularly scary.

b: I was not accustomed to some of their strange manners.

CORRECTION KEY

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Several of them were highly flammable.

...DECORATIONS, SEVERAL OF WHICH WERE...

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Two of them have worked for Dizney Studios.

MY BROTHERS, TWO OF WHOM HAVE WORKED FOR DIZNEY, FILLED...

a: The decorations were made of carved styrofoam.

b: They were supposed to make the place look like a cemetery.

THE DECORATIONS, WHICH WERE SUPPOSED TO MAKE THE PLACE LOOK LIKE A CEMETERY, WERE MADE...

a: The children were not at all impressed.

b: They said that it looked like cafeteria garbage.

THE CHILDREN, WHO SAID IT LOOKED LIKE CAFETERIA GARBAGE, WERE NOT...

a: My brother's feelings were hurt.

b: He had worked the hardest.

MY BROTHER WHO HAD WORKED THE HARDEST HAD HIS FEELINGS HURT.

THE FEELINGS OF MY BROTHER WHO HAD WORKED THE HARDEST WERE HURT.

a: The children did not even come inside.

b: We had especially invited them.

THE CHILDREN, WHOM WE HAD ESPECIALLY INVITED, DID NOT EVEN...

a: My brothers' wives were particularly scary.

b: I was not accustomed to some of their strange manners.

MY BROTHERS' WIVES, SOME OF WHOSE STRANGE MANNERS I WAS NOT ACCUSTOMED TO, WERE ...

 

Fill in the blanks with nouns that take infinitival or THAT+Sentence complements.

My brother-in-law has ________________ doing certain parts of his homework. At first, when I tried to help him, I was irritated by his apparent ________________ to listen to my explanations. Nevertheless, he continued to ask for advice, and I couldn't help noticing his ________________ to solve all the problems and find the right answers, as well as his burning ________________ to succeed in his future career. Then I realized that in fact it was his ________________ to do absolutely everything perfectly that caused him to have ________________ understanding that the "big picture" has to come before all the little details. His absolute ________________ to "tie up all the ends" before he even knew what he was really doing is what exasperated me the most. He couldn't tell the forest from the trees. At last, I made (a/an) ________________ to get through to him. I made the ________________ that he should pretend that he was on the beach with his own and his teacher's families. Everyone is relaxed, and the children are having ________________ throwing stones into the sea. During his conversation with the teacher, an interesting problem comes up, and he makes (a/an) ________________ to impress everyone with his ________________ to solve all kinds of difficult problems. Of course, since people are there to enjoy themselves, not to listen to lengthy, boring explanations, he knows that he has to make a special ________________ to be brief and succinct. My brother-in-law interrupted me there, saying that there was no ________________ that people at a beach party would listen to him at all. Besides, he had a secret ________________ that his teacher's daughter might laugh at him in such a situation. "There!", I said, "You're doing it again! The point of this fantasy is that you musn't get caught up in details, and there you are studying the details of the fantasy!" I was ready at that point to give up all ________________ that he would get my message. However, not long afterwards, I discovered the ________________ that he had been the head of his class all along. What's more, his teachers especially loved his care for detail! Later, I made the further ____________ that he had already made ________________ to be admitted to several different universities and conservatories. He recently explained that he had "fixed" the fantasy: now his teacher's daughter is always, always very impressed. It's true that this boy has the ________________ to do anything he wants to, and plenty of ambition. I have the firm ________________ that he has a lot of potential.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

trouble/difficulty unwillingness determination/eagerness/urge/desire desire/ambition anxiety/determination trouble determination attempt/effort suggestion fun/a good time attempt/effort ability effort guarantee fear hope fact discovery requests ability belief

 

Insert the missing relative pronouns, commas, and prepositions. (ORIGINAL EXERCISE)

My friend Simon __________ is one of my Aunt Ludmillaís boarders has just gotten back from the hospital. He and his neighbours all have violent bloody dysentery __________ is probably due to contamination of the drinking water. Sometimes heavy rains cause the sewers to back up the result __________ is flooding of sewage into the water supply. Simonís neighbours all __________ speak more Polish or KiSwahili than French were unable to get treatment. They were at the hospital __________ they were talking on the news yesterday __________ a dead body was found in a locked bathroom.

Simon has a history of bad luck at hospitals __________ would make a good movie script. First, he was born in the wrong hospital: the one __________ his motherís astrologer had recommended went bankrupt on the day her waters burst. Then, when he was a baby with otitis a condition __________ must have been worsened by Simonís Fatherís visiting friendsí constant smoking she took him to the hospital and the doctor __________ might well have been a smoker himself told her to just stick a piece of camphor in each of Simonís nostrils. She wisely ignored this advice __________ infuriated the doctor. (Smoking __________ was little discussed in those days was implicitly and totally accepted by all levels of society in those days.)

While Simon has had some experiences __________ do seem like ordinary bad luck there are others __________ are frankly unbelievable. For example, when he went to have his tonsils out someone shaved his head thinking that he was going in for a very different kind of surgery _______ is really a trivial mistake (and quite an understandable one for anyone __________ has ever met Simon and talked with him).

Other more outrageous incidents include the "infamous saga of the switched pills" the moral __________ is that patients should always be on the look-out for little mistakes involving their medication, blood-type, and reason for hospitalisation. Ideally, one should remain alert at all times in hospital, whether night or day, in or out of the operating theatre.

I have a soft spot for poor Simon many __________ troubles have been reported in the local papers __________ has discussed the "pill saga" in a special interview. Even if he survives his severe dysentery, his alimentary canal much __________ may be permanently scarred and ulcerated will never again digest anything more solid than yoghurt __________ the best type is plain with acidophilus.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

My friend Simon, WHO is one of my Aunt Ludmillaís boarders, has just gotten back from the hospital. He and his neighbours all have violent bloody dysentery, WHICH is probably due to contamination of the drinking water. Sometimes heavy rains cause the sewers to back up, the result OF WHICH is flooding of sewage into the water supply. Simonís neighbours, all OF WHOM speak more Polish or KiSwahili than French, were unable to get treatment. They were at the hospital ABOUT WHICH they were talking on the news yesterday, WHERE a dead body was found in a locked bathroom.

Simon has a history of bad luck at hospitals THAT would make a good movie script. First, he was born in the wrong hospital: the one WHICH his motherís astrologer had recommended went bankrupt on the day her waters burst. Then, when he was a baby with otitis, a condition WHICH must have been worsened by Simonís Fatherís visiting friendsí constant smoking, she took him to the hospital and the doctor, WHO might well have been a smoker himself, told her to just stick a piece of camphor in each of Simonís nostrils. She wisely ignored this advice, WHICH infuriated the doctor. (Smoking, WHICH was little discussed in those days, was implicitly and totally accepted by all levels of society.)

While Simon has had some experiences THAT do seem like ordinary bad luck, there are others WHICH are frankly unbelievable. For example, when he went to have his tonsils out someone shaved his head thinking that he was going in for a very different kind of surgery, WHICH is really no trivial mistake (albeit quite an understandable one for anyone WHO has ever met Simon and talked with him).

Other more outrageous incidents include the "infamous saga of the switched pills", the moral OF WHICH is that patients should always be on the look-out for little mistakes involving their medication, blood-type, and reason for hospitalisation. Ideally, one should remain alert at all times in hospital, whether night or day, in or out of the operating theatre.

I have a soft spot for poor Simon, many OF WHOSE troubles have been reported in the local papers, ONE OF WHICH has discussed the "pill saga" in a special interview. Even if he survives his severe dysentery, his alimentary canal, much OF WHICH may be permanently scarred and ulcerated, will never again digest anything more solid than yoghurt, OF WHICH the best type is plain with acidophilus.

 

Assemble the complex sentences. (ORIGINAL EXERCISE)

Religion includes a system of beliefs and practices.

The foundation of these beliefs and practices is awareness of the Creator.

Religion seems to reflect a human need because some kind of religious system appears in every culture.

This need is basic and universal.

Some religious systems emphasize certain feelings.

Each individual must experience these feelings.

In other systems the social dimension of religion takes priority.

A feeling of community is highly valued in these other systems.

Religions often have more superficial differences than similarities.

Some of the similarities appear only at a deep level.

However, all religions are united by a desire to approach the Divinity.

Their teachings are about personal or social improvement or both.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Religion includes a system of beliefs and practices (,) the foundation of WHICH is awareness of the Creator.

Religion seems to reflect a human need WHICH IS BASIC AND UNIVERSAL, because some kind of religious system appears in every culture.

Some religious systems emphasize certain feelings WHICH each individual must experience.

In other systems IN WHICH A FEELING OF COMMUNITY IS HIGHLY VALUED the social dimension of religion takes priority.

Religions often have more superficial differences than similarities, some of WHICH appear only at a deep level.

However, all religions, WHOSE TEACHINGS ARE ABOUT PERSONAL OR SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT OR BOTH, are united by a desire to approach the Divinity.

 

INSERT MODALS AND FUTURES: A SUSPICIOUS CONVERSATION AT THE MINISTRY (ORIGINAL EXERCISE)

Krotchett:- Excuse me, Dr. Graubish, you __________ sign here so that I __________ take the documents out of the building and destroy them.

Graubish:- You __________ bother destroying anything more, Ms. Krotchett. Certainly, the media __________ know all about the documents by now. In fact, those reporters __________ very well know a thing or two about this scandal that even we don't!

Krotchett: -What __________ I do with the ones you gave me this morning, sir?

Graubish: -Maybe you (NEGATIVE + MODAL)__________ burn them yet. It __________ look suspicious for us to be doing that just now. Where are they? Somewhere safe, I suppose?

Krotchett: -I left them in a box near the incinerator, sir.

Graubish: -Near the- WHAT?!!

Krotchett: -I was pretty sure -I mean, it seemed to me the kind of hiding place you would have chosen. You know, "hidden in plain sight"?

Graubish: -Good Lord, what makes you think I __________ leave them there, of all places? That area is open to any prying Tom, Dick, and Harry -and to reporters!

Krotchett: -You (MODAL, CONCERN)__________ , Doctor. It looks just like the rest of the garbage.

Graubish: -Now THAT truly reassures me! By the way, pretty soon, you (NEGATIVE, MODAL)__________ call me "sir" or "Doctor" anymore -at least, not after the Ministry's inspectors get their hands on that particular box. I think you __________ go down and retrieve it immediately, or else you and I (MODAL, HAVE) __________ our next private conversation at the Manpower office -or in "the Big House"!!

Krotchett: -Up until this morning, I (MODAL, GO DOWN)__________ to the incinerator without any special pass, but now, with the new security policy...

Graubish: -Alright, then, if you can't do it, I (MODAL OF OBLIGATION)__________

take care of it. If the guards respect my authority, I (POSSIBILITY, ABILITY)__________ do it myself.

Krotchett: -But- Doctor- Doctor- it's SUCH a dangerous thing for a tall, strong, handsome man like you to do... __________ I go instead? Please? Pretty-please-with-sugar-on-it??!

Graubish: -(POLITE REFUSAL)__________

[Ms. Krotchett speaks to herself]

Krotchett: -Damn %&@! When he goes down there and __________ find the box, he will be furious! What if he guesses that I'm the one who gave it to the reporters and "leaked" the story to the media?

[Graubish returns, furious]

Graubish: -Ms. Krotchett, you __________ have a good explanation for this!

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Krotchett:- Excuse me, Dr. Graubish, you MUST sign here so that I CAN take the documents out of the building and destroy them.

Graubish:- You NEEDNíT bother destroying anything more, Ms. Krotchett. Certainly, the media MUST know all about the documents by now. In fact, those reporters MAY very well know a thing or two about this scandal that even we don't!

Krotchett: -What SHOULD / MUST I do with the ones you gave me this morning, sir?

Graubish: -Maybe you (NEGATIVE + MODAL) SHOULDNíT burn them yet. It MIGHT /COULD look suspicious for us to be doing that just now. Where are they? Somewhere safe, I suppose?

Krotchett: -I left them in a box near the incinerator, sir.

Graubish: -Near the- WHAT?!!

Krotchett: -I was pretty sure -I mean, it seemed to me the kind of hiding place you would have chosen. You know, "hidden in plain sight"?

Graubish: -Good Lord, what makes you think I WOULD leave them there, of all places? That area is open to any prying Tom, Dick, and Harry -and to reporters!

Krotchett: -You (MODAL, CONCERN) NEEDNíT / DONíT HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IT, Doctor. It looks just like the rest of the garbage.

Graubish: -Now THAT truly reassures me! By the way, pretty soon, you (NEGATIVE, MODAL) WONíT HAVE TO call me "sir" or "Doctor" anymore -at least, not after the Ministry's inspectors get their hands on that particular box. I think you HAD BETTER go down and retrieve it immediately, or else you and I (MODAL, HAVE) MAY BE HAVING our next private conversation at the Manpower office -or in "the Big House"!!

Krotchett: -Up until this morning, I (MODAL, GO DOWN) COULD GO DOWN to the incinerator without any special pass, but now, with the new security policy...

Graubish: -Alright, then, if you can't do it, I (MODAL OF OBLIGATION) WILL HAVE TO.

take care of it. If the guards respect my authority, I (POSSIBILITY, ABILITY) MAY / SHOULD BE ABLE TO do it myself.

Krotchett: -But- Doctor- Doctor- it's SUCH a dangerous thing for a tall, strong, handsome man like you to do... MAY I go instead? Please? Pretty-please-with-sugar-on-it??!

Graubish: -(POLITE REFUSAL) THANK-YOU, IíLL SEE TO IT / IíLL TAKE CARE OF IT / IíD BETTER GO

[Ms. Krotchett speaks to herself]

Krotchett: -Damn %&@! When he goes down there and CANíT find the box, he will be furious! What if he guesses that I'm the one who gave it to the reporters and "leaked" the story to the media?

[Graubish returns, furious]

Graubish: -Ms. Krotchett, you HAD BETTER have a good explanation for this!

 

Create sentences containing the following time expressions, and insert one or more of these phrases (ORIGINAL EXERCISE):

[THREE OR FOUR TIMES]

[ALL OF THE TIME]

[FOR SEVERAL MINUTES]

1. [SINCE HE STARTED CHEWING GARLIC BUDS IN PUBLIC]

 

2. [EVER SINCE HE STARTED CHEWING GARLIC BUDS IN PUBLIC]

 

3. [BEFORE HE FINALLY GOT TO THE DOOR]

 

4. [BEFORE HE FINALLY INSTALLED THAT DOOR]

 

5. [WHILE WATCHING HIS SISTERíS DENTAL SURGERY]

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

1. [SINCE HE STARTED CHEWING GARLIC BUDS IN PUBLIC] HE HAS KNOCKED HIMSELF UNCONSCIOUS THREE OR FOUR TIMES.

2. [EVER SINCE HE STARTED CHEWING GARLIC BUDS IN PUBLIC] HE HAS BEEN CALLING HIS MOTHER AND TAKING LONG NAPS ALL OF THE TIME.

3. [BEFORE HE FINALLY GOT TO THE DOOR] HE SHOOK HANDS WITH THE CROWD FOR SEVERAL MINUTES AND RETURNED TO BOW THREE OR FOR TIMES.

4. [BEFORE HE FINALLY INSTALLED THAT DOOR] HE WAS CHASING FLIES OUT ALL OF THE TIME / HE WAS ROBBED THREE OR FOUR TIMES / HE PLAYED WITH THE ELECTRIC DRILL FOR SEVERAL MINUTES

  1. [WHILE WATCHING HIS SISTERíS DENTAL SURGERY] HE KEPT MAKING INDECENT LITTLE NOISES ALL THE TIME / HE PASSED OUT THREE OR FOUR TIMES / HE PASSED OUT FOR SEVERAL MINUTES

 

Supply appropriate conjunctions. (ORIGINAL EXERCISE)

She called me at work. I have told her ten times not to do that.

I hesitated to call her at the hospital. I had no choice.

I suppose that she is a good surgeon. I have never been her patient myself.

SUGGESTED CORRECTION

She called me at work. I have told her ten times not to do that.

SHE CALLED ME AT WORK, WHICH I HAVE TOLD HER TEN TIMES NOT TO DO / SHE CALLED ME AT WORK, EVEN THOUGH I HAD TOLD HER TEN TIMES NOT TO DO THAT

I hesitated to call her at the hospital. I had no choice.

I HESITATED TO CALL HER AT THE HOSPITAL, BUT I HAD NO CHOICE / I HESITATED TO CALL HER AT THE HOSPITAL, WHICH I HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO DO ANYWAY.

I suppose that she is a good surgeon. I have never been her patient myself.

I SUPPOSE THAT SHE IS A GOOD SURGEON, ALTHOUGH I HAVE NEVER BEEN HER PATIENT MYSELF

Supply appropriate conjunctions of cause, contrast, and result, and other things as required. Then reformulate the sentences as equivalent conditionals. (ORIGINAL EXERCISE)

He spent the night at his friend's place _____________ he had had too much carrot juice.

He had had too much carrot juice, _____________ he stayed at his friend's place.

_____________ she couldn't stand the sight of tofu, she didn't want to offend her friends.

She couldn't stand the sight of tofu, _____________ she didn't want to offend her friends.

She was having second thoughts about putting the horrible, wriggly creature in her mouth, _____________ it was too late, _____________ the natives were watching in eager anticipation.

She was having second thoughts about eating it. _____________, it was too late to change her mind, _____________ she realized when she saw the natives' eager faces.

_____________ he had warned his buddies about his violent allergy to carob, they insisted that he come_____________.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

He spent the night at his friend's place BECAUSE he had had too much carrot juice.

IF HE HADNíT HAD SO MUCH CARROT JUICE, HE WOULDNíT HAVE SPENT THE NIGHT

He had had too much carrot juice, SO he stayed at his friend's place.

IF HE HADNíT HAD SO MUCH CARROT JUICE, HE WOULDNíT HAVE HAD TO STAY OVER AT HIS FRIENDíS

ALTHOUGH she couldn't stand the sight of tofu, she didn't want to offend her friends.

She couldn't stand the sight of tofu, BUT she didn't want to offend her friends.

She was having second thoughts about putting the horrible, wriggly creature in her mouth, BUT it was too late, SINCE / AS the natives were watching in eager anticipation.

She was having second thoughts about eating it. HOWEVER, it was too late to change her mind, AS she realized when she saw the natives' eager faces.

ALTHOUGH he had warned his buddies about his violent allergy to carob, they insisted that he come ANYWAY / ALL THE SAME.