COMPLETE THE SENTENCES, RESPECTING THE GRAMMAR.

I haven't really needed a t.v. since ...

I really haven't needed a t.v., since...

Sure, I'll help you, even if...

Sure, I'll help you, even though...

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking as though...

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking like...

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking as...

It is now ten a.m., and my profligate son's plane is scheduled to arrive here at ten-fifteen. His plane ...

It is now ten-thirty, and his plane has still not arrived. There has been no accident reported, nor any delay. I (MODAL + MAKE)_______________ a mistake reading the schedule.

"You don't have to do that!" the museum guard exclaimed to a visitor who ...

We have been operating on this patient for hours. Iím exhausted, and you all (TIRED)__________ too. I propose that we ...

What! What "old school-friend"?! You ***!, you've had me standing here waiting around since two o'clock!! You can't possibly...

He insisted that she see a doctor,

He insisted that she sees a doctor,

She told the doctor that she had nothing but...

If I was free, I would help him,

If I were free, I would help him,

He has had hives since...(SENTENCE)

Until he sees a dermatologist...

...unless he has already seen a dermatologist.

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

I haven't really needed a t.v. since ... I started working at Cinéma Libido.

I really haven't needed a t.v., since... I'm more generally dependent on CD's and music anyway.

Sure, I'll help you, even if... your crazy Mother tries to stop me.

Sure, I'll help you, even though... you do rather give me the creeps.

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking as though... he had some sort of torticolis.

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking like... an out-patient / Ö he has a stiff neck

Sometimes, Finley comes into class looking as... jittery as a cat on a hot tin roof

It is now ten a.m., and my profligate son's plane is scheduled to arrive here at ten-fifteen. His plane ... should be landing at any minute now.

It is now ten-thirty, and his plane has still not arrived. There has been no accident reported, nor any delay. I (MODAL + MAKE) must have made a mistake reading the schedule.

"You don't have to do that!" the museum guard exclaimed to a visitor who ... was picking up the tickets and cigarette buttls strewn about the lobby by other people.

We have been operating on this patient for hours. Iím exhausted, and you all (TIRED) must be too. I propose that we ... let some of the junior staff members take a stab at it.

What! What "old school-friend"?! You ***!, you've had me standing here waiting around since two o'clock!! You can't possibly... have been shooting off your mouth with a near-stranger for two whole hours!!

He insisted that she see a doctor, because her delirium was getting worse (-that was why he thought she should go).

He insisted that she sees a doctor, because her delirium had gotten worse (-that was why she started going, and why she still does, although she denies the whole thing when you ask her about it).

She told the doctor that she had nothing but... a bit of a head-cold with a funny buzzing sensation.

If I was free, I would help him, and I never asked for anything in return.

If I were free, I would help him, but I'm not, so I won't!

He has had hives since...(SENTENCE) his sister moved into his building.

Until he sees a dermatologist... he will have to keep using garlic paste mixed with chicken feathers to soothe the itching.

Any doctor is better than none. I say that he should at least start with a general practitioner...unless he has already seen a dermatologist.

 

 

Create sentences which contain the following time expressions.

CONSTANTLY FOR ANOTHER MONTH

FOUR OR FIVE TIMES THIS WEEK

SEVERAL MORE TIMES BY NEXT WEEK

SINCE YOUR MOTHER HAS BEEN HERE

BY THE TIME HE FINISHES HIS THESIS

AT LEAST THREE TIMES SO FAR

ALMOST CONSTANTLY FROM NOW ON

FOR SOME TIME BY THEN

IN ANOTHER HOUR OR TWO

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

I will be correcting these things CONSTANTLY FOR ANOTHER MONTH

I have had to write up correction keys FOUR OR FIVE TIMES THIS WEEK

I will have done this same chore SEVERAL MORE TIMES BY NEXT WEEK

You have been acting like a juvenile SINCE YOUR MOTHER HAS BEEN HERE

He will have forgotten even his own name BY THE TIME HE FINISHES HIS THESIS

I have written to the Ministry of Leisure and Finance AT LEAST THREE TIMES SO FAR

I will have to take these !!*! pills ALMOST CONSTANTLY FROM NOW ON

I will have been practicing FOR SOME TIME BY THEN

I expect to finish / to have finished mounting these trophies IN ANOTHER HOUR OR TWO

 

Direct speech to indirect speech.

"And why is your homework late this time?" the teacher demanded.

 

"I had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix last night," the student replied sadly.

 

"You see, class," the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room, "You must never, ever wait until the night before you have a trophy to hand in to start making your mixes. Start at least one week ahead!"

 

"But Maíam," the poor child protested in a feeble whistle, "I did do as you told us to! I think the ingredients fermented during the week."

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

"And why is your homework late this time?" the teacher demanded.

The teacher demanded to know the reason for his homework being late -again.

The teacher asked accusingly why his homework was late -again.

"I had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix last night," the student replied sadly.

The student replied sadly that he had had a small accident with the spice and vinegar mix the night before.

"You see, class," the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room, "You must never, ever wait until the night before you have a trophy to hand in to start making your mixes. Start at least one week ahead!"

Straightaway, the teacher trumpeted loudly to the whole room that the students should absolutely never wait until the night before there was a trophy to hand in to start making the necessary mixes, which should be prepared at least one week beforehand.

"But Maíam," the poor child protested in a feeble whistle, "I did do as you told us to! I think the ingredients fermented during the week."

The hapless child protested in a feeble whistle that he had in fact done just as she had advised, only it seemed that the ingredients had fermented during the week.

 

Convert from the conditional form to independent clauses with expressions like so, because, thatís why, and so on.

If John had only remembered to hand in his trophy on time, the teacher would have given him full marks.

John forgot that one essential thing: to hand in his trophy on time, so the teacher didn't give him full marks.

The teacher didn't give John full marks for his trophy, because he had forgotten to hand it in on time.

If you could start handing yours in on time, the teacher would always give you full marks too.

Start handing your in on time, and she'll always give you full marks too.

If you hadnít given handed in that soggy, wet trophy at the beginning of the term, he would be less attentive to all the little mistakes you make now.

He is so attentive to all the little mistakes you make now because of that soggy, wet trophy you handed in at the beginning of the term.

Convert into appropriate conditional forms, with essentially the same meaning.

He gave me extra marks for using genuine silk thread!

He wouldn't have given me extra marks if I hadn't used genuine silk thread!

I noticed that he hadnít added up my points properly, and he had to change my grade.

He wouldn't have had to change my grade if he had added up my points properly (and if I hadn't noticed).

He never gives you good grades because of that sloppy homework you gave him back in May.

If you hadn't given him all that sloppy homework back in May, he would give/be giving you good/better grades.

He always gives me good grades because I clean up the dissection table every day. Besides, my homework is always kissing clean!!

He might not always give me such grades if I didn't clean up the dissection table every day, and perhaps too if my homework weren't always kissing clean (unlike some people's!).

Create sentences containing the following expressions.

UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY

UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY

SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY

SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY

SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR

FOR SOME TIME ALREADY

FROM THE WAY HE WALKS

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS

AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON

BY 1945

BY 2001

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

We won't be able to declare for dependents UNTIL OLGA HAS A BABY.

We don't have any other family, so we really won't be able to declare for dependents UNLESS OLGA HAS A BABY.

There's no point in cleaning you apartment so fanatically SINCE YOU ARE LEAVING ANYWAY.

There haven't been any complaints about indecent noise levels, not SINCE YOU LEFT, ANYWAY.

ONCE SHE HAD PUT IT OUT TO DRY she forgot about it completely.

ONCE, SHE HAD PUT ONE OUT TO DRY and some big ugly grackle came and made a mess on it.

Grackles have soiled and spoiled her laundry SEVERAL TIMES SO FAR.

She has been thinking of some other way to dry her clothes FOR SOME TIME ALREADY.

You can tell that his jeans aren't quite dry FROM THE WAY HE WALKS.

FROM THE TIME HE WALKS to the store until he gets back should be long enough for his jeans to dry out properly.

Now that Olga has a baby on the way, we should offer to do some of the laundry for her AT LEAST OCCASIONALLY FROM NOW ON.

BY 1945, the shooting war had ended and the cold one was just beginning.

BY 2010, the cold war will have been effectively over for one full generation, and others may well be then being fought / may well then be in progress.

Answer with the appropriate inverted forms.

Q: Do you make friends at school?

A: (ONLY OCCASIONALLY)

Q: Surely you have them for supper sometimes, donít you?

A: (SELDOM)

Q: Do you serve steam-baked "apples", or lizard curry?

A: (RARELY, NOR)

Q: After your parties, do they ever require medical attention or have to call 911?

A: (HARDLY EVER)

SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS

Q: Do you make friends at school?

A: ONLY OCCASIONALLY do I make friends at school.

Q: Surely you have them for supper sometimes, donít you?

A: SELDOM do I have them for supper.

Q: Do you serve steam-baked "apples", or lizard curry?

A: Rarely do I serve steam-baked apples, nor do I serve lizard curry!

Q: After your parties, do they ever require medical attention or have to call 911?

A: HARDLY EVER does anyone require medical attention or have to call 911.

 

A TALE OF TWO PATIENTS (22 + 3)

Once upon a time, two very, very old friends, who (BE) ____________ room-mates ever since they (STUDY LANDSCAPING) ____________ in university, (DECIDE) ____________ that they (HAVE) ____________ enough of life together, and so they (CHOOSE) ____________ a doctor from the yellow pages and (TRY, MAKE) ____________ two appointments with him for the same day. They (BELIEVE) ____________ that this (BE) ____________ like playing Russian roulette with three bullets instead of only one, i.e., since there (MODAL, NOT, BE) ____________ much more than a fifty per cent chance of surviving a visit to any of the "doctors" in their town, one of them (CERTAINLY, DIE) ____________ if they both (GO) ____________. For some time, both (THINK) ____________ of trying something like this, so that at least one of them (HAVE) ____________ a few years of peace. Besides, the choice (BE) ____________ completely random and fair. True, their understanding of probability (MODAL, BE) ____________ rather limited, but, after all, it's the thought that counts, right? Besides, they (MODAL, STILL, PAY) ____________ back their student loans, so they (NOT, MODAL) ____________ go back to school to take the math courses necessary to analyse their situation correctly. Anyway, on the day of their appointments, while the first "patient" (SAT) in the waiting room, a magazine entitled "UFO's TODAY" caught his idle gaze. He (READ) ____________ it for about five minutes when he (BEGAN, REALIZE) ____________ that since he (ENTER) ____________ the room, he (FEEL) ____________ a bit nauseous, and that he (FEEL) ____________ sicker and sicker every minute. At last, just as the doctor was saying good-bye to the previous patient... (YOU COMPLETE THIS STORY!)

A TALE OF TWO PATIENTS (22 + 3)

Once upon a time, two very, very old friends, who (BE) HAD BEEN room-mates ever since they (STUDY LANDSCAPING) HAD STUDIED LANDSCAPING in university, (DECIDE) DECIDED that they (HAVE) HAD HAD enough of life together, and so they (CHOOSE) CHOSE a doctor from the yellow pages and (TRY, MAKE) TRY TO MAKE two appointments with him for the same day. They (BELIEVE) BELIEVED that this (BE) WOULD BE like playing Russian roulette with three bullets instead of only one, i.e., since there (MODAL, NOT, BE) COULDN'T BE much more than a fifty per cent chance of surviving a visit to any of the "doctors" in their town, one of them (CERTAINLY, DIE) WOULD CERTAINLY DIE if they both (GO) WENT. For some time, both (THINK) HAD BEEN THINKING of trying something like this, so that at least one of them (HAVE) SHOULD/WOULD HAVEa few years of peace. Besides, the choice (BE) WOULD BE completely random and fair. True, their understanding of probability (MODAL, BE) MAY HAVE BEEN rather limited, but, after all, it's the thought that counts, right? Besides, they (MODAL, STILL, PAY) STILL HAD TO PAY back their student loans, so they (NOT, MODAL) COULDN'T/WEREN'T ABLE go back to school to take the math courses necessary to analyse their situation correctly. Anyway, on the day of their appointments, while the first "patient" (SAT) SAT/WAS SITTING in the waiting room, a magazine entitled "UFO's TODAY" caught his idle gaze. He (READ) HAD BEEN READING it for about five minutes when he (BEGAN, REALIZE) TO REALIZE that since he (ENTER) HAD ENTERED the room, he (FEEL) HAD BEEN FEELING a bit nauseous, and that he (FEEL) WAS FEELING sicker and sicker every minute. At last, just as the doctor was saying good-bye to the previous patient...

 

EXTRA EXERCISE (NOT GIVEN IN CLASS -JUST FOR FUN)

Assemble the parts to make complex sentences containing adjective clauses. Make sure that you use acceptable "connectors".

I met the woman.

She is the delinquent boy's mother.

 

I met the woman.

Her son is always eating garlic.

 

I met the woman.

I gave her son some parsley for his breath.

 

 

I met the woman.

We talked about her.

 

I met the woman.

We talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home about her.

 

I met the woman.

We talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home about her son.

 

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her.

We were talking about her at lunch yesterday.

 

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her.

We were talking about her son at lunch yesterday.

 

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her son.

We were talking about him at lunch yesterday.

The woman wants the neighbours to stop gossiping.

They keep calling the police for nothing.

 

CORRECTION KEY

I met the woman WHO is the delinquent boy's mother.

(WHO HAS A DELINQUENT SON)

I met the woman WHOSE son is always eating garlic.

I met the woman TO WHOSE son I GAVE some parsley for his breath.

I met the woman WHOM we (HAD) talked about.

I met the woman WHOM we talked ABOUT all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home.

(...ABOUT WHOM WE TALKED...)

I met the woman ABOUT WHOSE SON we talked all day yesterday at the restaurant and most of the evening at home.

The woman WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY wants us to stop gossiping about her.

The woman WHOSE SON WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY wants us to stop gossiping about her.

The woman wants us to stop gossiping about her son.

We were talking about him at lunch yesterday.

THE WOMAN WHOSE SON WE WERE TALKING ABOUT AT LUNCH YESTERDAY WANTS US TO STOP GOSSIPING ABOUT HIM.

The woman wants the neighbours to stop gossiping.

They keep calling the police for nothing.

THE WOMAN WANTS THE NEIGHBORS, WHO KEEP CALLING THE POLICE FOR NOTHING, TO STOP GOSSIPING.

 

Combine to form concise paragraphs containing restrictive or non-restrictive adjective clauses.

1. He saved the young boys from the bomb-shelter before it collapsed.

He was congratulated by the peace-keepers for this.

2. The shelling continued all night, and knocked out the power.

This made it very difficult for me to finish the book I was trying to read.

It was about Family Planning.

3. The sergeant chose the healthiest young men for the peace march.

The village could offer none healthier.

Villagers in favour of the war would not dare throw rocks at them.

4. The Franistani rebels were demanding an immediate return to their traditional orthographic system.

Even educated Western journalists rarely spell their names correctly.

They also demanded that map-makers and geography teachers all over the world stop representing their country as a red lozenge.

They say that red is a hated symbol of communism, and furthermore that the lozenge has indecent connotations in their culture.

CORRECTION KEY

1. He saved the young boys from the bomb-shelter before it collapsed.

FOR WHICH he was congratulated by the peace-keepers.

2. The shelling continued all night, and knocked out the power,

WHICH made it very difficult for me to finish the book about F.P. (that) I was trying to read.

3. For the peace march, the sergeant chose the healthiest young men (that) the village could offer, (at) whom villagers in favour of the war would not dare throw rocks (at).

4. The Franistani rebels, whose names even educated Western journalists rarely spell correctly, were demanding an immediate return to their traditional orthographic system.

They also demanded that map-makers and geography teachers all over the world stop representing their country as a red lozenge, which they say evokes both a hated symbol of communism as well as a shape that has indecent connotations in their culture.

Put the following simple sentences together to form a complex one containing a well-formed adjective clause.

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Several of them were highly flammable.

 

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Two of them have worked for Dizney Studios.

 

a: The decorations were made of carved styrofoam.

b: They were supposed to make the place look like a cemetery.

 

a: The children were not at all impressed.

b: They said that it looked like cafeteria garbage.

 

a: My brother's feelings were hurt.

b: He had worked the hardest.

 

a: The children did not even come inside.

b: We had especially invited them.

 

a: My brothers' wives were particularly scary.

b: I was not accustomed to some of their strange manners.

CORRECTION KEY

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Several of them were highly flammable.

...DECORATIONS, SEVERAL OF WHICH WERE...

a: My brothers had filled the place with Hallowe'en decorations.

b: Two of them have worked for Dizney Studios.

MY BROTHERS, TWO OF WHOM HAVE WORKED FOR DIZNEY, FILLED...

a: The decorations were made of carved styrofoam.

b: They were supposed to make the place look like a cemetery.

THE DECORATIONS, WHICH WERE SUPPOSED TO MAKE THE PLACE LOOK LIKE A CEMETERY, WERE MADE...

a: The children were not at all impressed.

b: They said that it looked like cafeteria garbage.

THE CHILDREN, WHO SAID IT LOOKED LIKE CAFETERIA GARBAGE, WERE NOT...

a: My brother's feelings were hurt.

b: He had worked the hardest.

MY BROTHER WHO HAD WORKED THE HARDEST HAD HIS FEELINGS HURT.

THE FEELINGS OF MY BROTHER WHO HAD WORKED THE HARDEST WERE HURT.

a: The children did not even come inside.

b: We had especially invited them.

THE CHILDREN, WHOM WE HAD ESPECIALLY INVITED, DID NOT EVEN...

a: My brothers' wives were particularly scary.

b: I was not accustomed to some of their strange manners.

MY BROTHERS' WIVES, SOME OF WHOSE STRANGE MANNERS I WAS NOT ACCUSTOMED TO, WERE ...